Category Archives: Uncategorized

Zulay Magazieva & her book “Det Tabte Tjetjenien”-The Lost Chechnya—-

In 81 chapters, 200 Pages, Zulay told the horrible and tragic story of a small republic, Chechen, that tried to be independent in the nineties but drastically failed. Chechen people were known for centuries for their special identity and culture. people who were denied living peacefully for centuries, under tzars and under communist repression, especially Stalin …seven hundred to one million people are the approx. numbers of this tiny republic. Proud People of the mountains who refuse to be controlled by any foreign power as Alexander Solzhenitsyn wrote. No one can tell the story of their people other than people themselves. Zulay, a brave journalist has total credibility when she reflects on shootings, kidnappings, torture, springing bodies in the air, dropping live bodies from helicopters…etc: all that one could imagine about what happened during the war and its tremendous unforgettable results, especially among those who directly was witness to the drama, is found between the two covers of Zulay’s book. Without this brave honest and decent account, part of our modern history will be missed forever. Eyewitnesses and direct testimonies are the fountains for credible and authentic resources, much more than the accounts told be victors, who mostly falsify their archival accounts to match their version of the story.     

The “White Whale” of Herman Melville’s (Moby Dick) & me in Greenland


28 July 2018



Whales & Icebergs in Wonderful Greenland today



Algeria: Is it possible to reconcile colonized and colonizers’ memory?……..

Benjamin Stora , A French Historian,  and Abd alMajeed Shaikhi,,,, Director of Algerian national archives and councilor to the Algerian President, were both named by French President Macron and Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune, to reinvestigate or revisit the memory of the colonial era in Alger 1830-1961 in order to settle the different views that are still in conflict with each other.  

Also,  there are 181 signatories of British historians who wrote recently a protest letter to authorities about historical information in a pamphlet required for all applicants for British citizenship. According to these historians, the government document is misleading applicants about several aspects of British history when they claim the UK’s role in the international slave trade is downplayed (NB: more than three million people were shipped by British merchants to be sold as slaves). The pamphlet mentioned nothing, in plus, about that numbers and the suffering of the slaves in an attempt to clean their colonial past and its slavery history.  The end of the British Empire, according to historians, is described as “mostly peaceful” when it was not. The letter calls for the history chapter of the pamphlet to be re-written urgently. “Decolonisation was not an ‘orderly’ but an often violent process,” the historians argue.

Is it possible in the end to reconcile the irreconcilable discourse between the colonizer and the colonized? Can the two countries after decades of the Algerian liberation war reach a common ground of real identification of the horrors of colonialism and its devastating results on the colonized? Would that be followed by a clear apology and reparation of the damages that took place? I doubt. The French president apology in 2018 to Josette Audin, the widow of Maurice Audin, a French mathematician and anti-colonial activist who died in 1957 under torture of the police, while the official story denied that, is absolutely not enough, although a tiny symbolic recognition of official use of torture against prisoners. 

History was written only by the victors. The indigenous people need to write, first and foremost, their own history, so as to meet the adversary on an equal footing…whether those are Blacks, Colonized Africans, Kurds, Armenians….. or still under the longest occupation in modern history as Palestinians. South Africa, post the Apartied era, gave a good example of a possible reconciliation after the principle of one man one vote won the battle.  

Memory is a battlefield that could never be won by weapons, however, these weapons are strong. George Floyd’s spirit has done to history more than thousands of classical historians- to recorrecting our vision of history, the history that is written only by the victors, to empower them and to legitimize their authorities. History, to the masses who demonstrate on all the streets and squares of the world continents nowadays, becomes a self-conscience domain and a tool, a new methodology to redefine the past and the present – by revisiting the huge printed volumes,  the prominent white personalities, the claimed heroes and the hundreds of colonial statues, adored by “national citizens” for centuries- and reevaluate this huge heritage from their own perspective and vision. Only this vision can integrate the past with the present, and open a promising future to our coming generations.   



Amazon’s new offers of book: “Lubya, a Palestinian Village in Galilee-An Unforgettable Symphony” in 8 different languages….

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…Comment on Janet Abu-Lughod: “Before European Hegemony- 1250-1350″…



The urban sociologist Janet Abu-Lughod ( the mother of the Palestinian American anthropologist Lila Abu-Lughod who wrote -Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society ,2000)- in her marvelous book:  Janet Abu-Lughod. 1989. “Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350” demonstrates and deconstructs the classical ideas of the western civilization’s concept of its centrality to civilization. especially when she researched the history of Cairo city in 1001(Janet Abu-Lughod. 1971. “Cairo: 1001 years of the City Victorious),and other cities as Baghdad and Damascus….. 

The main idea of Janet is to undermine the egocentric/Eurocentric concept (Eurocentrism as the term for an ideology was coined by Samir Amin in the 1970s) that is built around the globality of the world that is long-established before the industrial Europan revolution, and long before the renaissance; especially when we study the east and mainly china’s culture: an intro to Janet theory:   

Interview with her daughter: Lila Abu Lughod on her research on women in Upper Egypt and other articles and books of her research_

“Deepest Regrets” from Belgian king to Congo’s President-But neither reparation nor compensation

On the 60th anniversary of Congo’s independence, Belgian king, Philippe expresses his “deepest regrets” to the president of Congo. Between 10 and 15 million have died as a direct result of the horrors of the king and his colonial rule. Just last month the brother of the king defended Leopold 11, said that he did not visit Congo even once-thus unresponsible for the crimes committed there. Neither reparation nor compensation was mentioned in the King’s letter.

Nowadays, after72 years of Palestine’s colonization and uprooting of 2/3 of the Palestinians from their own homes and lands in 1948, one word of regret or sorry from authorities was not heard yet; the opposite is taking place: the continued confiscation of 30% of the remaining small archipelago Islands of what remained of historical Palestine, enlisted to start today- in what is known as “The Century’s Deal”. Colonial powers, past and present, never learn lessons from history – They change their tactics, but their main goal remains Control, Confiscations, Subjugation and  Denial of the horrors they inflicted on the Aboriginals, Natives, and the Indigenous populations of the colonized people-thus refusing to repay back part of the debt they owed to the colonized peoples. Although partially appreciated after 135 years in complete silence,  it is only a lip service from Belgian king Philippe that felt short of clear Apology, followed by Reparation and Compensation. Justice should prevail for all colonized, whether past or present.     

Lubya’s Massacre in 1939-among others- Ofer Aderet-Haaretz 13.6.2020

(Although I mentioned this piece of info in Lubya book for two decades ago, but it is interesting to be mentioned in this article on Haganah’s 100th anniversary:

Assassinations, Terror Attacks and Even Castration – the Hidden Actions of Israel’s Pre-state Militia

This month marks the 100th anniversary of the formation of the forerunner of the Israeli army. While the Haganah boasts of its heroic acts and looks down on similar right-wing groups, its history also includes dark operations it would prefer not to mention

the Semiramis Hotel bombing in Jerusalem’s Katamon neighborhood by the Haganah’s Moriah battalion, January 1948.
The Semiramis Hotel bombing in Jerusalem’s Katamon neighborhood by the Haganah’s Moriah battalion, January 1948.

“The memory of what was done in Lubya, like the memory of all the other abominable acts that preceded it, will forever disgrace its destructive perpetrators.”


These scathing words were published in the Labor movement daily Davar 81 years ago. A few weeks earlier, in the summer of 1939, members of the Haganah – the underground, pre-independence army of Mandatory Palestine’s Jews, founded by the movement’s members – had murdered two men and a woman, and injured a young girl and a toddler. All of them were innocent Arabs from the village of Lubya in the Lower Galilee, shot dead at home in the dead of night.


The murders, described as a revenge attack for the killing of a Jew by villagers in Lubya, was carried out by members of the Haganah’s special ops unit. Each man who took part in the mission has a place of honor in the local history books: The most senior was Yigal Allon, who later headed the Palmach (the Haganah’s elite strike force), and became an Israel Defense Forces general and education and foreign minister.


The operation’s organizer was Nahum Shadmi, a senior Haganah member and a future IDF colonel and president of a military appeals tribunal, as well as a Mapai Party activist (Mapai was the forerunner of the Labor Party). His son Issachar was commander of the Border Police brigade whose members committed the 1956 massacre in the Arab town of Kafr Qasem.


This month marks the centenary since the founding of the Haganah. Its pre-1948 actions included assisting with illegal Jewish migration to British Mandatory Palestine; covert overnight construction of new settlements (the “Tower and Stockade” operations); dispatching operatives – such as Hannah Szenes – into Nazi-occupied Europe or commandos to Vichy-controlled Lebanon; as well as other heroic feats that have become part of this country’s legacy.


But there is another aspect to the Haganah that will not feature prominently in the centenary celebrations, and which is not well known to the public or part of the high school curriculum. This aspect has been excluded from museums, parades, and the official and state-sanctioned history books. It shows that the hallowed “purity of arms” concept was interpreted very loosely by the organization that gave birth to the IDF.


The bombing of the British ship Patria on November 25, 1940.
The bombing of the British ship Patria on November 25, 1940.

“Now, after 100 years, it’s time to talk about these chapters as well,” says Peleg Levy, a documentarian who has interviewed hundreds of veterans over the last decade – including members of right-wing and left-wing underground organizations – as part of a project documenting Israel’s history. They told him about assassinations, reprisals and terror attacks attributed to the Haganah. Among the wider public, such operations are normally only associated with the right-wing Irgun and Lehi organizations. Any mention of those names evokes the King David Hotel bombing in Jerusalem in 1946 and the Deir Yassin massacre two years later.


“If there’s a Lehi conference in which they don’t talk about the assassination of Folke Bernadotte [the Swedish diplomat murdered by Lehi members in 1948], people will complain. If the Irgun holds one in which they don’t talk about the King David Hotel operation, people will jump on them. So why do they allow the Haganah to write its history without talking about similar things their people perpetrated?” Levy asks.


Later in our conversation, he notes that the Labor movement called members of these two underground groups “terrorists,” while taking pride in the “purity” of the Haganah organization’s actions and stressing that their methods were different.


Despite this, the Haganah has a list of blemishes to its name, ones that former members would be only too happy to expunge from memory. They never took responsibility for most of these operations, making do with some general condemnation or blaming rogue elements in the organization. This is how the murder in Lubya was described in Davar. The paper said, without noting the identity of the perpetrators, that this act was “a horrific murder, attesting to the perpetrators’ loss of any ability to distinguish [innocents] and their lack of any human sensitivity. These shots, which killed elderly people, women and a baby, show that we are on a dark slope, sliding toward an abyss.”


‘Nest of killers’


Nine years later, in January 1948, Haganah members were involved in an operation that, over 70 years on, appears never to have been thoroughly investigated.


Young recruits at a Haganah training camp in the 1940s.
Young recruits at a Haganah training camp in the 1940s.Credit: From the Haganah archive

It’s unlikely that most people reading this will have heard of the Semiramis Hotel bombing in Jerusalem’s Katamon neighborhood by the Haganah’s Moriah battalion. This may be due to the fact that it occurred at the height of the War of Independence, which was marked by many violent acts. However, it’s probable that the writers of Haganah history deliberately chose to minimize any mention of this incident – as many right-wingers believe.


The blast was meant to hit the headquarters of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, commander of the Arab militias fighting Jewish forces in the Jerusalem area. A squad of Haganah soldiers gained entrance to the hotel’s basement and placed explosives there before detonating them. Husayni was not in the building, but dozens of Arab civilians were. The exact number of dead and injured is unknown to this day. According to one report, 26 people were killed and a further 60 injured.


Most of the dead were from the Christian Abu Suawan family, including women and children, as well as the Spanish vice-consul to Jerusalem, who was living in the hotel. Davar reported the incident the next day and, like before, did not provide its readers with the full picture. “The Haganah blew up Arab militia headquarters in Jerusalem,” the headline read. “This was one of the nests of killers in Jerusalem,” the paper declared.


Another building was blown up by the Haganah some two years earlier, in February 1946. This was part of a Palmach operation targeting British police stations across the country. Three British women and a child were killed in the explosion. “Over the years, Haganah leaders and the pre-state Jewish community accused us of being irresponsible in carrying out such attacks and yet here, Haganah members were the first to hit British women,” wrote Natan Yellin-Mor, a Lehi leader who later became a peace activist.


A popular song among Palmach members in those days talked about “castrating Mohammed.” This referred to an Arab from the town of Beisan – now Beit She’an – who was suspected of trying to rape a kibbutz member. Due to a rise in the number of Jewish women being raped by Arabs at the time, “the Palmach decided to retaliate according to the biblical injunction to chop off a thief’s hand – or, in this case, the organ used to commit the crime; in other words, to castrate him,” Mossad member Gamliel Cohen wrote years later, in a book describing the first undercover operations in which Jews dressed up as Arabs.


The official website of the Palmach describes the castration incident as one of “the exceptions, an extremely cruel one,” committed by its members in those years. This operation was initiated by Allon and carried out by Yohai Ben-Nun (a future naval commander), Amos Horev (a future IDF general and president of the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology) and Yaakov Cohen (later a member of all three intelligence agencies). “The instructions were that the castrated man should remain alive, walking around with his injuries in order to deter others,” the Palmach website explains. The team was briefed by a doctor in Afula on how to perform this “operation.”


Yitzhak Sadeh, left, the founder of the Palmach (the Haganah’s elite strike force), is seen in this file photo taken in 1948 next to Yigal Allon, who later headed the Palmach, and became an Israel Defense Forces general.
Yitzhak Sadeh, left, the founder of the Palmach (the Haganah’s elite strike force), is seen in this file photo taken in 1948 next to Yigal Allon, who later headed the Palmach.Credit: Teqoah

“From the perspective of the people who had decided on this, the preparations reflected the intention to implement it while applying a humane approach,” the Palmach website stresses. The three men found the suspect at home, dragged him to an open area and castrated him. “This operation had a riveting effect, resonating throughout the Beit She’an Valley and terrorizing the local Arabs,” writes Cohen in a book published by the Defense Ministry.


Sacrifices in the name of immigration


The 80th anniversary of one of the most lethal events in the history of the Zionist movement will be marked in six months’ time: the bombing of the British ship Patria on November 25, 1940 – an incident that also failed to lead to any expressions of remorse by the Haganah, even though its members were the perpetrators. The plan was to prevent the expulsion of some 2,000 illegal immigrants, who the British were deporting from Haifa to a detention camp in Mauritius. However, the damage wrought by the blast was so immense that the ship sank along with some 250 passengers.


Instead of relating to the affair as a tragedy that warranted the investigation of its perpetrators, the Labor movement insisted on turning it into a symbol, its victims turned into martyrs sacrificed on the altar of defending the homeland, with no note of who was actually responsible for their deaths.


Berl Katznelson, the ideological leader of the labor movement, wrote the next day to Shaul Avigur, one of the Haganah’s leaders: “Know that the day of the Patria sinking is for us like the day of [the 1920 fall of] Tel-Hai,” thus trying to assign to the event foundational national status. He added that the Patria operation was “the biggest Zionist action in recent times.” Yitzhak Tabenkin, among the leaders of the Kibbutz Movement, called the victims “heroic unknown soldiers.”


Eliyahu Golomb, the undeclared head of the Haganah, also spoke about the incident in the same vein. “For me, the day of the Patria is not a black day, nor the blackest day,” he said. “These were sacrifices made in the name of immigration, for our right to immigrate. These victims were not without meaning.”


Young Haganah recruits training at the beach in 1941.
Young Haganah recruits training at the beach in 1941.Credit: From the Haganah archive

The massacre committed by members of the Palmach’s Third Battalion in the village of Ein al-Zeitun, near Safed, was also ultimately glossed over. Today, every history buff in Israel knows about the April 1948 massacre in Deir Yassin, carried out by right-wing underground members. But few have heard about the one a month later by underground members of a left-wing organization. They conquered the village and imprisoned dozens of Arab combatants. Two days later, on May 1, they executed them with their hands bound.


Historian Yoav Gelber writes in his book about the 1948 war that the eagerness of the left to hurl accusations at Irgun and Lehi members while highlighting the Deir Yassin affair stems from their uneasiness over the participation of Palmach commanders and soldiers in similar actions, such as the murder of dozens of prisoners in Ein al-Zeitun.


In 1939, the Jewish Agency’s political department issued a “Thou shall not murder” decree, signed by the most senior spiritual leaders of the age, in which they warned against Jews killing Jews. The decree was aimed at the Irgun organization, which had murdered Jews it deemed “traitors.” But these leaders ignored the fact that the Haganah also executed Jews and non-Jews who it identified as traitors and informants, says Gili Haskin, a tour guide who wrote a Ph.D. thesis about the “purity of arms” concept in those days.


Haskin wrote in an article that the executions carried out by the Irgun and Lehi groups were overt and publicized, whereas the ones carried out by the Haganah were surreptitious, performed by special ops teams.


‘No clean hands’


The first Jew to be executed by the Haganah was Baruch Weinschell, who was accused of giving the British information about illegal immigration. He was killed in October 1940, in Haifa. Oscar Opler, a kibbutznik from the Lower Galilee, was also executed. He was a British informant who had revealed the location of hidden weapons and was subsequently condemned to death by the Haganah. Moshe Savtani was exposed as an informant and shot in the stairwell of his house by the Haganah. He died of his wounds in hospital. Yitzhak Sharansky from Tel Aviv, Baruch Manfeld from Haifa and Walter Strauss and others also fell victim to internal assassinations by Haganah members.


Young Haganah recruits performing combat training in the 1940s. The organization's belief in "purity of arms" wasn't always so squeaky-clean.
Young Haganah recruits performing combat training in the 1940s. The organization’s belief in “purity of arms” wasn’t always so squeaky-clean. Credit: From the Haganah archive

Such operations continued right up to the establishment of the state. At the end of March 1947, Mordechai Berger, who worked in the Mandatory police’s traffic division, was murdered in the street after being suspected of divulging information about the Haganah to the British. “The assailants gagged him and hit him over the head with clubs. Berger fell bleeding,” wrote Prof. Yehuda Lapidot, an Irgun member who later researched the history of Mandatory Palestine.


“None of the organizations emerges with clean hands from this dark matter,” Haskin wrote. He added that the fingers of right-wing organization members were lighter on the trigger, but emphasized the role of Haganah members in assassinating Jews.


In this context, one cannot ignore the first political murder of a Jew in Mandatory Palestine. The victim was Jacob de Haan, a strange character and proud poet who became ultra-Orthodox and an anti-Zionist, talking with Arabs about the possibility of revoking the Balfour Declaration. Haganah member Avraham Tehomi and other associates were believed to be behind de Haan’s assassination on a Jerusalem street in June 1924.


British officials were also targeted by the Haganah, although most assassinations of Mandate officials were perpetrated by Irgun and Lehi members. The most famous was the assassination of Lord Moyne, the British minister of state in the Middle East. He was shot to death in Cairo by Lehi members in November 1944. The Haganah, meanwhile, killed British officer William Bruce, who was shot in Jerusalem at the end of Simchat Torah, in October 1946. “A British inspector was murdered last night while walking alone in Jerusalem, wearing civilian clothes,” Haaretz reported the next day.


Exceptionally for those days, the perpetrators were members of the Palmach: the Haganah’s commando force had been set up in 1941, cooperating with the British in its early years. The murder was in response to Bruce’s abuse of Palmach prisoners in a British prison a few months earlier.


Peleg Levy’s documentary project included an interview from 2010 with the commander of that operation, Aharon Spector. He told Modi Snir and Levy that he had followed Bruce with the intent of punishing him. “I waited for him, he sensed he was a target,” he recounted. The assassination was preceded by a trial by a special Palmach court, which sentenced Bruce to death. According to Spector, the order came from Yigal Allon.


“Privately, people didn’t worry about telling these stories, while the collective they belonged to did not relish talking about it,” Levy says.


Yisrael Medad from the Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem investigated the incident as part of a lecture series he holds on the “purity of arms” topic. “This incident is amusing,” he says, referring to a flyer the Palmach published after the murder. “They needed to explain that they were unlike those terrorists from Irgun and Lehi – but that in practice they needed to do the same thing,” he says.

Toppling racist statues-Cultural debate is reopened

 Thanks George Floyd

Nations, when they start to be nations for a few centuries ago, agreed always upon symbols, flags, statues, parks, forests…to be their symbols, their heroes/heroines, and in a word their proudness. Even though they were empires before, as the British, Danish or French, very few dare to question the meaning of those symbols, especially the statues that were raised in different corners of their empires, and later nations. Post George eight minutes forty-six seconds a wave of demonstrations walk the streets of hundreds of cities around the world, reminding us of the movement that flourished in what is known as the Arab spring in all the Arab world. Although the main slogan, rightfully, was Black Lives Matter, young people from all races, religions, and nationalities walked together marching the streets, culminated in the slogan: “topple the racists,” toppling of statues that represent the era of the slave trade in the past four centuries. Africans shipped to America, through many European companies- mainly British. The list of those named by protestors is too long. Recently, Nancy Pelosi decided to move the statues of 13 of them from the congress halls. Already demonstrators drove few statues to the water of the harbor in Bristol city: such as Edward Colston. The man who compared Palestinians with dogs Winston Churchill’s statue was sprayed with graffiti as racist.: “He asked rhetorically before the Peel Commission “Why is there injustice done if people come in and make a livelihood for more and make the desert into palm groves and orange groves?”, believing in the myth of making the desert green!!:  “I do not admit that the dog in the manger has the final right to the manger, though he may have lain there for a very long time I do not admit that right. I do not admit for instance that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been to those people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race or at any rate a more worldly-wise race, to put it that way, has come in and taken their place. I do not admit it. I do not think the Red Indians had any right to say, ‘American continent belongs to us and we are not going to have any of these European settlers coming in here’. They had not the right, nor had they the power”. He continued summarising his views before the Peel Commission bluntly: “It is a question of which civilization you prefer.” At one point he explicitly told his Secretary of State for IndiaLeo Amery that he “hated Indians” and considered them “a beastly people with a beastly religion”!!!

Among others, as well, is Christopher Columbus’ statue, whom we were credited with discovering “the new world”, the Americas, in the 15th century…as if the Americas did not exist before, and did not have inhabitants. The same lie arrived in Palestine a century ago, to discover the promised land and make the desert green, as if Palestine was empty of its people and awaiting the new colonizers to enrich it! In 1897 a Rabai delegate reported to the rabbis of Vienna on the prospects for a Jewish state in Palestine:  “the bride is beautifulbut she is married to another man“. Native Americans protested many times the honoring of this discoverer who stood as a symbol of the genocide of their ancestors, where millions, an estimate of 20 million, were killed as a result of this “discovery”, but their shouts ended up in total silence, ignoring even to respond to their petitions. King Leopold 11 (1865-1909), under whose absolute rule of Congo- now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, an estimated 10-15 million Africans died. Hands of men, women, and children were amputated when they did not come at the precise time or did not deliver the amount of rubber assigned to them. “Exterminate all the brutes” was the slogan of Kurtz in Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness”.  As usual, experts who are always from the colonizing power, question marked the numbers,  saying that there wasn’t enough evidence.

Had there been no camera to register the 8:46 seconds of the killing of George Floyd, the experts and prosecutors of the police will come with the same excuse: no evidence, no documentation…and in many cases accusing the victim of violence and resisting the arrest by force. In the same week of George’s killing, a Palestinian with special needs was shot dead by four bullets in Jerusalem, while he was on his way to his school. Without the detailed report of an Israeli journalist Gideon Levy in Haaretz newspaper, and the interviews he did with Iyad’s carer, with the parents, and with the people who knew the 32 years old Iyad Hallaq. There was no camera in place, as with other hundreds of similar cases. After 72 years, the denial politic is still mainstream, although an abundance of material is in place

Europeans, and especially those who were colonial powers, including Denmark where I live, must face its past with braveness and recognize their dark past. This is a daring step that clears the educational curriculum and the heavy consciousness of the crimes committed and build a new generation’s identity that is not biased. Identity concept is a moving phenomenon, that always gets richer when it is more open towards the past. Without a critical approach to our past, neither our present nor our future will be bright as we think. Many thanks to George’s memory, which leads to questioning the past of hundreds of racist figures worldwide, who were wrongly glorified and praised as symbols of nationality. “Culture & Imperialism” 1993,   of Edward Said would help little bit those who want to put this phenomenon of cultural struggle, including nowadays toppling statues as I think, in its historical-cultural context. The main pivotal question is who wrote history, and who can judge the credibility of its discourse other than the people themselves from all races, religions, ethnicities and nationalities- versus the elite who mostly falsify the narrative to comfort those in power. Those marginalized and oppressed people- mainly blacks, women, colonized- do have the right to be heard and to put their narrative in real human history.

The 99th anniversary of Tulsa/Oklahoma massacre in 1 June1921: Racism more dangerous than Corona

george-floyd last minutes video (NY Times)

8 minutes & 46 seconds to murder George Floyd were enough to inflame worldwide protests against injustices and Racism, not only against the Blacks, but other minorities persecuted around the world. Today is the 99th anniversary of Tulsa massacre where around 300 blacks were massacred, and 1200 homes were burned by Whites. George was lucky to have witnesses and cameras that register his brutal murder. Blacks soldiers in WW1 won’t give help them immunity from racial discrimination and subsequent raids from the Whites. Even after a century, the burial place of the dead bodies was not identified. Documents and archival material of the massacre disappeared. Criminals in power everywhere try always to hide their crimes. Only a few who survived the massacre were lucky to testify and recount their horrible moments before their last breath. “I can¨t breathe” was the only last word we heard from Floyed.  How essential for researchers to register what happened to Palestinian survivors after almost 70 massacres – before, during, and in the aftermath of Nakba (disaster) in 1948- through “Oral History” documentation: a weapon of the marginal and oppressed. Our common enemy as human beings is RACISM  whether we are  Blacks, Palestinians, Kurds, Armenians, European Jews,  Muslim Rohingyas or Tutsis in Rwanda.       

A comment on “The strange Library”-H. Murakami

I went yesterday to collect Murakami’s short novel, “The Strange Library”, but found out that my local library in Brønshøj is open, but in a very mysterious way, with three employees standing together at the front door, questioning me: what do you want? Then leading you through a zigzag alle’ to collect my reserved book. Asking them: what about newspapers? “not ready yet. No newspapers because of Corona, perhaps next week”. Fortunately enough I was grown-up man; the employees can not divert me to room107 understairs, and I am not interested in the Osman Empire’s tax system. Although I shared few experiences with the young boy in the short novel in prison, nevertheless, he was luckier to return to eat his mother’s delicious food after being rescued by a speechless girl and a sheepman, without losing his brain that was destined to be eaten by a monstrous man who planned devilishly to eat the young man’s brain after memorizing the three-volume books of Osman Empire’s tax system…… Two strange libraries matching one another in a very mystical way: one fictional, the other real…….  

Remembering the nearly 200.000 lost lives…

Remembering the Nearly 100,000 Lives Lost to Coronavirus in America – The New York Times   

One more hundred thousand elsewhere around our tiny planet left with neither memories nor remembrances…..while President playing Golf; anther deny the existence of the virus, advising his people to drink Vodka and go to Saona, and a third declaring emergency laws to fasten his grip on power!!!    

In three months time, 1200 per day, topping the number 100 thousand in (only one country), other (200 thousand in the four continents) reminds us of the short distance between our dreams and our departure, without even having our love ones nearby, saying bye-bye virtually, through our laps and PC’s, or walking masked behind the funeral, if we are lucky, watching from our closed cars, and keeping social distancing in place. Behind each life lost is a life full of life, whether happy or sad, abruptly put to an end, without a choice, and sometimes without a word to leave amid lack of oxygen to breath…..Could philosophy, religion, dream, poetry, or wild fantasy give us a satisfactory answer to a banal question: WHY?    


A Memo on “Nakba” Day 15 May 2020: Falasteen is still there…..

Commemorating the ongoing Nakba Day on Lubya debris 2014-2015


72 years of Denial, Occupation, Expulsion, Demolishing, Negation & Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine achieved a Zero-sum result. From the British “Balfour’s declaration” in 1917 to the American Trump’s “Deal of the Century” in 2020, the idea of cancelling Palestine is drastically failing. People of Palestine, 13.4 million, almost half in mandate Palestine, and the other half in exile, are still existing, without the right of self -determination, and without the right of Return to dispossessed lands and houses. All the military and economic might of the world are trembling in front of a microscopic Achilles heel Coronavirus. My friend and teacher Shareef Kanaani used to say to me: we should not be worried about the geography of Palestine. It was there, and it will be there always: from the stone age until nowadays. Only its people should keep on its memory and keep the flame burning until justice is done and freedom is achieved. One century of imperial promises and 72 years of uprooting and destruction are only a comma or max a semicolon in a page of a voluminous book of Palestine history. The idea of “Falasteen” with all its rich, multilayer ethnicities and historic heritage, long before the monotheistic profits were born, is much bigger, wider, and more promising than the mighty colonial powers who are shivering and disintegrating in front of a tiny insect. Shouldn’t those powers learn a b c lessons from history (Vietnam, Alger, South Africa…etc)?  

Joy Harjo, Poet Laureate, and the necessity of Oral Traditions to preserve her native indigenous identity and culture

Joy Harjo performs with her band during her opening event as the U.S. Poet Laureate at the Library of Congress, September 19, 2019. Photo by Shawn Miller/Library of Congress

Joy Harjo, born 1951,  was named poet laureate by the Library of Congress, the first of its kind, for her achievements in poetry, storytelling, music and the power to reflect the oral traditions of her ancestry, the original native Americans, called American Indians.  -Unlike John Eliot’s stories about the Indian Americans, published in 1685, in which he claimed that he heard them directly from American Indians while working among them as a Puritan missionary.  The oral tradition, one of my favorite vehicles to preserve and enrich the indigenous cultures of the occupied, the oppressed and the uprooted, whether Palestinians, Armenians, Kurds, Africans or Native Americans,  is prevalent through her various literature readings and musical performances. -Especially the symbol of Horses that is recurrent in her poetry, imagery rightfully remembered by Hadidi, when he draws the connection between Mahmoud Darweesh’s and Joy Harjo’s Horses symbolism.  Her method of continuing oral tradition include story-telling, singing, in order to captivate the attention of her audiences, is overwhelming. While reading poetry, she claims that she “starts not even with an image but a sound”. As a poet, singer and playwright, she insisted on recapturing the memories of her past native Americans, refusing the current mainstream narrative that tried to suppress the right to write her indigenous history and culture, without falsifications of mainstream writers, whether nowadays or in past days, through Christian missionaries.   


Love “in the Time of Cholera”, Pest, Plague or Corona: is it enough?


“Love in the Time of Cholera”, of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Daniel Defoe’s “A Journal of the Plague Year”,  Albert Camus’ the Pest”, the epic “Gilgamesh”, Milton’s “Paradise Lost”, and the thousands of articles, written nowadays on Corona Pandemic, in all languages possible, and from all four corners of the world…not a stone remains unturned, to find out what is taking place around, whether within or without. The answers remain for everyone to face, to contemplate, to ponder all questions related to DEATH, FEAR & LOVE -the three central topics that worried the majority of our planet. The political chaos of the few opportunists that always looks for gaining more powers to survive, forgetting the cemeteries around the world are full of people who thought once that they are greater than life; the discriminatory victims of the disease are huge: whether Chinese facing insults because of their origins, or Palestinians refused to board an airline because of documents they hold, or Kurds who were forgotten in the unending conflicts of regional forces around their lands; or the Africans whom two professional French physicians suggested testing their findings of medicine in Africa because they are of lesser value than Europeans, those two physicians did not even apologize after they were attacked on social media; or the American journalist who mocked the minute silence in China for the remembrance of the corona victims, calling them Pinocchios……All the worst in human beings, especially among nations whom they called themselves civilized, are pouring daily in media. “In the destructive element immerse” as Joseph Conrad wrote in “Heart of Darkness”. Kurtz, the civilized, the politician, the literary person, the gentleman, was becoming to a monster when he left the boundaries of civilized Europe and entered the darkness of the continent: Congo, putting heads on stalks around his mansion. Death and Fear can be conquered temporarily by Love and Solidarity; but the question of survival of our Human Nature, balancing our mother nature and its environmental milieu will remain our unprecedented lesson, facing ourselves amid deadly moral crises and Corona disease.      

The Greek Poet Simonides: “We defeated them, not when we conquered them, but when we oblige them to forget their history and civilization”


The late Greek poet Simonides (556-468 BC) said: “We defeated them, not when we conquered them, but when we oblige them to forget their history and civilization”. Dr. Hamdan’s article on Jericho, and the short summary he presented of the achievement of the Palestinian Department of Antiquities since 1994 under his leadership deserves a unique THANKS to him and his colleagues in the department. Despite the heavy rules of military occupation, I have seen, since I met Hamdan more than a decade ago, the huge task and the great achievements of this tiny department, that took me more than twenty minutes going around with a taxi to find where the physical building of the department lies, the tens of archeological sites that were excavated and researched, after the confiscation of the Archeological Museum of Palestine, established in 1920, now named Rockefeller, with thousand artifacts that are confiscated from Palestinian places, although the name is still curved on its stones – Palestine Museum – until now: a policy applied since 1948 on thousand of places in Palestine, to cancel the existence of the mere word PALESTINE, whether in archeological places or names of valleys, hills, roads or villages demolished. Although the efforts that are done in this regard are magnificent, the job is not accomplished yet, until retrieving the whole archeological and historiography of this tiny place of 27000 square kilometers, to reunify the history of the place and its displaced people, whether in exile or under occupation or living under apartheid and discriminatory rules.

The article:  Two Decades of Archaeology in Jericho, 1994–2015 Hamdan Taha 

Hamdan’s article on Jericho

Dear Mahmoud
Thank you always for your thoughtful reflections on issues  of history, memory and identity.  These efforts are complementary to your lifetime distinguished work on Lubya. Looking forward to see soon. Stay safe
Dr. Hamdan Taha
Vice President for Academic Affairs
Al- Istiqlal University

Yahya Hassan-“None like you, None replace you”

Yahya Hassan- the Danish Palestinian poet, the refugee whose family was uprooted from Palestine in 1948, whose mother is from Lubya village, and father from Faradiya, the great genius who sold 120.000 copies of his first book in 2013, the young man who tried to introduce the Arab-Islamic  Aviros (Ibn Rushd) into his candidate manifesto to the Danish Parliament, to give the Danes another version of the Arab-Islamic prominent philosophical personalities where scholars from  Europe came to study philosophy in Andalusia in the twelfth century, the young man who tried to push forward for the recognition of Palestine, as Sweden has done by recognizing Palestine as a state, in his political debate, the personal revolutionary, almost without borders, against the classical traditional forms of his uneasy personal family life, the charming and angry way of reading his poetry that resembles the great Mahmoud Darweesh in his young age in Haifa: “Sajjil Ana Arabi” – left us so early yesterday, 24 years old. Perhaps Jørgen Leth is right when he said: no one is like him, no one could replace him. Danish literature, mainly poetry, is richer with Yahya, the refugee who tried with success at sitting on two chairs, instead of falling between the two cultural chairs: the Danish and the Palestinian. Yesterday I saw the documentary on DR 2 on Yahya. Always a biased redaction team when it comes to the history of Palestine  Not a word on his family’s background. Images that are totally irrelevant to the past accompany Yahya’s father’s story. May your soul rest in peace Yahya.       

Epidemi from the Greeks to Gaza & the question of Democracy


A host of writers wrote on Epidemi since humanity began registering their sicknesses, hopes, enemies, anxieties and how to face or interpret death. From Plato’s cave metaphor to ibn Sinaa’s instructions to cure deseased stomachs , to Jose Saramago and the white blindness that dominate one of his novels, to Kafka’s protagonist who comes to be a small insect, to Camu’s plague novel of Oran in Algeria, to the unwritten stories of TWO Milion people, besieged in Gaza in 2020, and their un-noticed confinement for more than two decades, not only a few weeks or months that drove the World mad until now ……….We all are seeking metaphors of survival, for our egoistic satisfaction and welfare. Our means are: books, art, films, small donations- only to fly away and evade the fundamental questions:  Why are the poor continue to living poor, and why minorities, whether in gender, race or religious groupings,  continue their un-achieved successful results  of their struggles? while  the few – who are less than ten persons- owning more than half of the 8 billion world’s population? Can we have a say on who own the World Bank or the International Monetary Font (IMF) as Jose Saramago once asked in a press conference?     

Søren Kirkegård versus Corona?

It is taking the world two World Wars to move from a village-like economy, as my own village Lubya in Galilee -Palestine, to an international village-like economy which is called Global World Economy. The Spanish virus, following WW1, killed almost 50 million people, double as much as those perished in the war. Coronavirus of today is pushing all of us to rethink the relation between our selves and this global village we live in.

Theories of “the End of History.” of Francis Fukuyama is overpassed and needed to be stranded aside. Samuel Huntington’s thesis of “The Clash of Civilizations”, that people’s cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world, is crumbling, although we heard repetitively nowadays of the origins of the Coronavirus attributed to a specific nation- such as China. The different versions of Marks theories and interpretations are floating here and there, claiming success because of the Capitals’ necessary downfall because of the permanent conflict between productive forces and means; and the Corona is only a manifestation of this conflict.

It is early to predict a clear theoretical frame for the powers who compete internationally now to draw the new world’s order that this crisis necessitates. If we want as persons, me and you and her to have a role in this coming Worlds order, shouldn’t we rely little bit on Søren kirkegårds’ visionary philosophical perceptions, especially when he wrote “Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards”? Do we have the courage to put our own anxieties and our subjective desires and dreams at the crux of the wheel that is on its way to move on – in post Corona era? Especially that we all have seen that the Emperor is Naked, as H.C.Anderson’s child cried in “The Emperor’s New Clothes”? Could we dismantle our imminent internal fear and face those few who will try always to dictate our personal and collective lives?         

The Human being, before and after Corona

For sure, the world before Corona will be different than after. But the question is: in which direction? and who would benefit most from the radical changes? Through all human history, there was a combat between authorities and their established institutions: leader, army, judiciary etc and the few who would challenge the order. Socrates was sentenced to drink poison in 399 BC because he exceeds the norms, refusing to recognize the gods of the state and accused also of corrupting the youth. He was given other choices than death but refused.

The best philosophers and writers were killed in the Umayyad and Abbasid kalifates because they opposed the power of the ruler. Rasâ’il Ikhwân al-Safâ’ wa Khullân al-Wafâ’ (Epistles of the Pure Brethren and the Sincere Friends), 52 in numbers,  were written in the tenth century in an anonymous way to protect their views and their heads as well. Galileo in 1616 was summoned by the Church Inquisition, afraid to reaffirm his beliefs in Copernicus heliocentric theories, imprisoned in his house for the rest of his life. But when he left the judge room he trample the earth: “and yet it does move”.  Only in 1992, the Vatican recognized that Galileo was right, and the earth rotates around the sun.  Nowadays, we are hearing of prof. Didier Raoult was visited by Macron to hear from him his theories about curing the Corona virus. Didier is against the establishment. The medicine factories are part of the profit companies and had no interest that others would succeed and surpass their reputation and reproduction.  Not to mention Dr. Anthony Fauci and the daily contradiction with the President.  

Every person in this tiny human world is obligatorily invited to rethink his/her gender, nationality real or imagined, wealth, rightly collected or through maneuvers of deceit through banking systems. 

The 17th October movement in Lebanon in 1919, the yellow jackets in France, the Arab spring in 1910 and all its ramifications, Occupy Wall Street in 1911…..etc…All these movements, coupled with the huge awareness of environment and the heat of our sphere put us all, and each one of us at the forefront of the coming battles after the Corona episode is diminishing. The majority’s interest against the few whose greedy appetite for power and money is unlimited. We are the only owners of our lives and destiny, and our choice of representatives should be guided not by the supply-demand theories of the new liberals;  but by the new measures of post-Corona: health, care, equality, dignity and knowledge based on science for all.  


In the time of confinement, books are the best friends to frequent

In the time of confinement, books are the best friends to frequent. I do have more than 2000 books in my modest library after I get rid of more when I moved years ago to my small apartment. Now it is time to clean the dust from valuable books that need rereading. Al-Dahikoon الضاحكون is an old book written by Mohamad Ali, a few years ago-1988, the fifth edition. Stories and Personalities like Jiha, Ash’ab, al-Jaahith, and many others make you explode in laughing, although sitting alone amid escalating Corona death numbers: Perhaps Ibn Sina had right when, one thousand years ago, had recommended high humor and laughter as a helping cure to stomach diseases. Thanks Abu Suhail for lending the book.

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Reflections on Corona days

Reflections on Corona days- How to measure the strength of a nation:

While running my 6 km per day in the forest close to me, I wonder a little bit about political leaders of the world and their reaction to the killer virus: Newzeland Prime minister, Jacinda Ardern, the brave woman – who stands sharply against massacring innocent Moslems in two mosques, preventing people from holding private guns – closing borders so early, taking clear steps of the total shutdown, that only one death until now is reported. Even one death is so many if that can be evaded. No more Military Tanks, Airplanes and Atom Bombs and millions of men and women underarm are the signs of the strength of nations: it is how many Beds and Respirators you have in your hospitals that matter and give you the first rank. How many millions of masks can be made or imported for the price of one military tank? Health and respect to the elderly versus elites greedy appetite to money and power. Who could think this formula would be valued more, only two months ago?

Imwas Plague in 640

Imwas Plague in 640:

A Few words concerning the Corona & other viruses in the past. Imwas Plague-640 (A Palestinian village bet. Jerusalem and Ramla, totally demolished in 1967, to follow those demolished in 1948; on its ruins is built a “Canada Park”- to make the Sahara Green-as the myth of the colonizers claim!!!). History books told us of thousands who perished from Imwas Plague, such as Abu Ubayda al-Jarrah. Rules were put from that time on how to manage the collective Plague. These rules were updated by Ibn Sina-Avicenna- discovery of the viruses in the body, and the ways to cure the disease by distancing, washing, & using courage and happy humor to conquer the disease. (NB) Ibn Sina’s books: The Canon in medicine- القانون في الطب‎ (al-Qānūn fī aṭ-Ṭibb) were taught at the biggest university of Polonia University in Italy, the oldest in Europe until the 18th-century.

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Ibn Sina, Avicenna (980-1037) and the social distancing

Ibn Sina, Avicenna (980-1037)-the Islamic Philosopher and Doctor, warned people of the same measures of nowadays Social Distancing we are observing in 2020, even advising people of evading social gatherings, praying at home and not mosques, washing the hands and clothes, even cleaning the money in vinegar, precisely as the British used it in 1666 when facing the London Plague. Mainly he spoke about being brave and not being scared: See the following trailer of a Russian film produced in 1956 about Ibn Sina:

The Orwellian “Big Brother”s & Corona

The Orwellian “Big Brother”s have one COMMON GOAL: Control, Profit, Power, Higher Shares’ Investments, more Military Equipments & Airplanes; less Infrastructure, less care to the Elderly, less budget to Hospitals, less budget to Education & Culture.
Feb.6, 2020,  Doktor Li.W died in China, rebuked by police because of his early warning of the virus COVID 19.
Nov. 26, 2018: CNN reports that Trump “dismissed a study produced by his own administration … and more than 300 leading climate scientists, warning of the potentially catastrophic impact of climate change.” Asked why, Trump told reporters, “I don’t believe it.”
Jan. 22, 2020: President Trump is asked by CNBC: “Are there worries about a pandemic at this point?” Trump answers: “No. Not at all. And we’re, we have it totally under control. It’s one person coming in from China. … It’s — going to be just fine.”
March 31: Trump “I want every American to be prepared for the hard days that lie ahead. We’re going through a very tough few weeks”. Medical Governmental Experts expecting bet. 100.00 to 240.000 could die in the coming weeks.
“We are facing a global health crisis unlike any in the 75-year history of the United Nations — one that is killing people, spreading human suffering and upending people’s lives,” the United Nations declared: “This is much more than a health crisis,” the report added. “The coronavirus is attacking societies at their core

Social Distancing….in history

SOCIAL Distancing is a practice that is common a long time ago. In 1666 king Charles 11 ordered closing restaurants, pubs and schools as an answer to the Bubonic Plague, or black death, that spread in London, killing a quarter of its population. Samuel Pepys’ marvelous daily diary spoke about people hiding toilet papers and cheese in holes in their gardens while fleeing their homes to the countryside. Accusations that time against the Dutch who brought the disease, are exactly the same as nowadays of accusing the Chinese!!!! The head of the revolutionary Oliver Cromwell was put on spike, 20 feet long, as a revenge act form the king, to look at the victims of the plague from Westminster hall, after his body being exhumed, many years after his death(1658), tried for treason, severing the head from body!! “History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce” K.Marx.

Lubya book in 9 languages – French.Italian.Portugese.German.Polish.Dutch.Spanish.English.Danish كتاب “لوبيه – قريه فلسطينيه في الجليل – سمفونيه لا تنسى” مترجم الان الى9 لغات عالميه : الفرنسية البرتغالية الألمانية الهولندية البولونيه الأسبانية الإيطالية .



كتاب “لوبيه – قريه فلسطينيه في الجليل – سمفونيه لا تنسى” مترجم الان الى9 لغات عالميه : الفرنسية البرتغالية الألمانية الهولندية البولونيه الأسبانية الإيطالية الآنجليزيه الدنماركيه- موقع أمازون 

Also book can be purchased at: 

In 1837 an earthquake in Lubya killed 143 Lubyans. In 1948 a human earthquake demolished 1000 houses by one kg. TNT in each room, and all its inhabitants were expelled, except those who were massacred. Now: 2020 Lubya’s historiography is printed in 9 languages: to keep the Memory and the Will to Return alive, despite 72 years in obligatory exile.


Replies from friends:

1.Michael Nathanson reply: Dear Mahmoud and friends,

Finally, I was able to purchase a copy thru Amazon and will receive it soon. I read your introduction to the book on line and have a true sense of your agonizing over the history and fate of your covillagers in particular and of the Palestinians as a whole. Having travelled through the Galilee prior to 1948 I too mourn the destruction of many of the villages and with it of Palestinian society. Again, I congratulate you for succeeding to republish the book in many languages so that its readership may increase and your massage spread around. If only it could be translated into Hebrew…
All the best
2.Bo Hermensan svar
Super! Til lykke!
Jeg håber, du i øvrigt har det godt trods Coronaen. Selv var jeg sammen med en smittet kollega i onsdags (før hun fik symptomer), så der er en god chance for, at jeg selv får den også. Øv! Men ellers går det da meget godt.
Bedste hilsener,
3.Ingrid svar:

Dear Mahmoud

Wow. Congratulations. Eight languages! How did you do that. We may learn something. Never came out in more than 2 languages.

Best wishes. Ingrid

4. Nadia 

Great achievement. Congratulations Mahmoud. 


Dear Mahmoud,

Congratulations! Finally out and in many languages. How important is this job to circulate this history, your history. The story of one person, one family, and one village often tell us more than that of one nation or one army.  
Sending you love in a time of turmoil.
6. Emanuel Pfoh
Dear Mahmoud,
many congrats!
All the best,
7.Thomas Tompson

Dear Mahmoud,

Congratulations on the new edition of your fine book.

8.Ilan Pappe

alf mabruk!!!

9. Neils Peter

Oh, I have one in three languages! But well done, Mahmoud!

Niels Peter Lemche
10. Hamdan Taha 
الف مبروك ِ عمل رائع. شهاده ضد الظلم التاريخي الذي حاق بقريه لوبيا . لعله يجلب بعض العداله للمظلومين الذين ينتظرون حلول العداله يوما. واولها معرفه الحقيقه التي هي شرط التحرر
لوبيا وفلسطين. الجليل وجبل عامل والجولان. يفتخرون بك. محمود عيسى.

A comment on Heather Spears’ new book “The Creative eye”

Heather Spears, in her new book “The Creative eye”, opens the horizon to everyone thirsty for new vision, new look, and I dare to say exploring new ways to live life. Spears, in her artistic quest of the why and how, is matching what Hayden White tried to explore in the History of Consciousness: creativity, imagination, renaming and redrawing – it is a new philosophical vision that is needed, not only to look back at the past thousands of years of Mesopotamian’s and Egyptian’s art; but, to contemplate an obscure future, and to gaze into our own mystical inner world as well. -A lovely and inspiring book is needed now to read, especially when we are instructed to be at home nowadays-because of Corona.

“Lubya-a Palestinian Village in Galilee” at & sites…/lubya,pal…/isbn/978-620-0-48047-7

 Lubya Monograph is covering the historiography, culture and identity of a Palestinian village, Lubya, demolished in 1948, uprooting and dispersing all its population; nowadays residing in thirteen different countries in the four corners of the world. To erase the witnesses and the debris of the houses, a huge green forest called “South African Forest” is planted to bury the last remnants and cover up the horrible crime of the demolishment. Around 3500 people were living in Lubya before the Nakba in 1948; nowadays, they are almost 50.000.

The main method used to reconstruct the historiography of Lubya – the biggest in Tiberias district, and the second in Galilee- is qualitative interviews with the elderly generation, supported by archival documents in Jerusalem, Nazareth, London; diaries, newspaper articles and historical references. Young Lubyan generation living in exile were interviewed as well to follow their aspirations, livelihood, identity question, integration and their dreams of return.  Table of contents cover a forward, by Ilan Pape, a preface and an introduction, ten chapters, conclusions and thirteen appendices:  

Table of Contents 

Chapter One                                             the Archaeology of Memory                                                                                    

Chapter Two                                            Hamayil, Shuyukh and Makhateer                                                                           

Chapter Three                                           Landscape                         

Chapter Four                                            Rhythms of Life                                      

Chapter Five                                             Village Relations                                     

Chapter Six                                              the Struggle over Land                            

Chapter Seven                                          the ‘Great Revolt’                                    

Chapter Eight                                           the Nakba

Chapter Nine                                            Exile

Chapter Ten                                              the Future    




I        Families as Remembered by Lubyans

II       Places’ Names in Lubya    

111    Names of 240 ‘Absentees’ from Lubya

1V     Names of Lubyans Killed during the 1936-39 Great Revolt

V       Names of Lubyans Killed during the 1948 War

VI     Lubya’s Occupation in the Archives

VII    UNRWA Registered Refugees from Lubya

V111 Lubyans living in Denmark

1X     Interviews with Young Generation of Lubyans

X      Thomas Thompson: Lubya: Investigating Palestine’s Subaltern Heritage

X1     An article written by Gideon Levy and Alex Levac on 8th May 2015 covering apology of South African Jews to displaced Lubyans                                        

 X11     Update article on “Oral History’s credibility, role and functionality From the Arab Islamic tradition to modern historiography.”

X111 Publications by the author: Monographs, book chapters & periodicals-

X1V  Images & Maps of Lubya

New version:

Publishing house:
By (author) :Mahmoud Issa Number of pages: 256 Published on:2019-12-27 
Keywords: historiography, identity, culture, memory.

Documentary film on Lubya Village


On January 1, 1837 an EARTHQUAKE took place in Galilee 143 from Lubya reported dead, “wrote Edward Robinson” Edward Robinson (April 10, 1794 – January 27, 1863) is Founder of Modern Palestinology, an American biblical scholar. Robinson traveled to Palestine in 1838 in the company of Rev. Eli Smith. He published Biblical Researches in Palestine in 1841. In 1948, 111 years later, The ethnic cleansing of Lubya, is continued and completed, now by 1000 kg TNT, planted in and around 1000 rooms of the whole village, for destruction. See film “Village under forest (…). This time it is “Man Made Earthquake” . But the geography, the debris, the Sabr trees, the wells and the graveyards are still there-even though buried under a fabricated “South African Forest”. 72 years on, in 2020, more than 50.000 Lubyans worldwide insisted to keep the memory of their village alive, until the Right of Return, Compensation, Restitution and Justice is met and implemented. No photo description available. No photo description available. No photo description available. 8Joshua A. Sabih, Mohamad Issa and 6 others 2 comments

On January 1, 1837 an EARTHQUAKE took place in Galilee. 143 from Lubya reported dead, “wrote Edward Robinson”

Edward Robinson (April 10, 1794 – January 27, 1863) is Founder of Modern Palestinology, an American biblical scholar. Robinson traveled to Palestine in 1838 in the company of Rev. Eli Smith. He published Biblical Researches in Palestine in 1841.

In 1948, 111 years later, The ethnic cleansing of Lubya, is continued and completed, now by 1000 kg TNT, planted in and around 1000 rooms of the whole village, for destruction. See film “Village under forest (…). This time it is “Man Made Earthquake” . But the geography, the debris, the Sabr trees, the wells and the graveyards are still there-even though buried under a fabricated “South African Forest”. 72 years on, in 2020, more than 50.000 Lubyans worldwide insisted to keep the memory of their village alive, until the Right of Return, Compensation, Restitution and Justice is met and implemented.

No photo description available.
No photo description available.
No photo description available.

Earthquake in 1837 in Lubya. 143 reported dead: source: Scholar Edward Robinson

Edward Robinson (April 10, 1794 – January 27, 1863) is Founder of Modern Palestinology, an American biblical scholar. Robinson traveled to Palestine in 1838 in the company of Rev. Eli Smith. He published Biblical Researches in Palestine in 1841, for which he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1842.[1] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1847.[4]


“Words” are more authentic and stronger than bulldozers, military airplanes and artillery-

“Words” are more authentic and stronger than bulldozers, military airplanes and artillery- especially when spoken by uprooted refugees. Just received my book “Lubya, Palestinian Village in Galilee . An unforgettable Symphony”. Lambert Academic publishing-Berlin, 2019.


Lubya: An unforgettable Symphony- Publisher: Lambert…/lubya,pal…/isbn/978-620-0-48047-7

Blurb/Shorttext:Monograph is covering the historiography, culture and identity of a Palestinian village, Lubya, demolished in 1948, uprooting and dispersing all its population; nowadays residing in thirteen different countries in the four corners of the world. To erase the witnesses and the debris of the houses, a huge green forest called “South African Forest” is planted to bury the last remnants and cover up the horrible crime of the demolishment. Around 3500 people were living in Lubya before the Nakba in 1948; nowadays, they are almost 50.000. The main method used to reconstruct the historiography of Lubya – the biggest in Tiberias district, and the second in Galilee- is qualitative interviews with the elderly generation, supported by archival documents in Jerusalem, Nazareth, London; diaries, newspaper articles and historical references. Young Lubyan generation living in exile were interviewed as well to follow their aspirations, livelihood, identity question, integration and their dreams of return.Publishing house:
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing
By (author) :Mahmoud IssaNumber of pages:256Published on:2019-12-27Stock:AvailableCategory:
Cultural history
Price:50.90 €Keywords:historiography, identity, culture, memory

The book “Lubya a Palestinian Village in Galilee”


Lubya,Palestinian Village in Galilee

An Unforgettable Symphony

LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (2019-12-27 )

Price 50.90 €

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Book language:
Monograph is covering the historiography, culture and identity of a Palestinian village, Lubya, demolished in 1948, uprooting and dispersing all its population; nowadays residing in thirteen different countries in the four corners of the world. To erase the witnesses and the debris of the houses, a huge green forest called “South African Forest” is planted to bury the last remnants and cover up the horrible crime of the demolishment. Around 3500 people were living in Lubya before the Nakba in 1948; nowadays, they are almost 50.000. The main method used to reconstruct the historiography of Lubya – the biggest in Tiberias district, and the second in Galilee- is qualitative interviews with the elderly generation, supported by archival documents in Jerusalem, Nazareth, London; diaries, newspaper articles and historical references. Young Lubyan generation living in exile were interviewed as well to follow their aspirations, livelihood, identity question, integration and their dreams of return.
Publishing house:
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing
By (author) :
Mahmoud Issa
Number of pages:
Published on:
Cultural history
50.90 €


Price 50.90 €

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My book on Lubya Village is available in English now


Lubya,Palestinian Village in Galilee

An Unforgettable Symphony

LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (2019-12-27 )

Price 57.90 Euros

Amount :  

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Book language:
Monograph is covering the historiography, culture and identity of a Palestinian village, Lubya, demolished in 1948, uprooting and dispersing all its population; nowadays residing in thirteen different countries in the four corners of the world. To erase the witnesses and the debris of the houses, a huge green forest called “South African Forest” is planted to bury the last remnants and cover up the horrible crime of the demolishment. Around 3500 people were living in Lubya before the Nakba in 1948; nowadays, they are almost 50.000. The main method used to reconstruct the historiography of Lubya – the biggest in Tiberias district, and the second in Galilee- is qualitative interviews with the elderly generation, supported by archival documents in Jerusalem, Nazareth, London; diaries, newspaper articles and historical references. Young Lubyan generation living in exile were interviewed as well to follow their aspirations, livelihood, identity question, integration and their dreams of return.
Publishing house:
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing
By (author) :
Mahmoud Issa
Number of pages:
Published on: 2020
Cultural history
57.90 Euros

Comment on Harold Bloom’s: “How to read and why”

It is a wonderful pleasure to read Harold Bloom’s: “How to read and Why”…. especially when enjoying the sun of december in Hurghada. A host of prominent stars, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Guy de Maupassant, Italo Calvino, Anton Chekhov, Frank O’Connor, Harold Bloom, William Faulkner & Herman Melville…..I agree with Virginia Wolf in her remark: “The only advice, indeed, that one person can give another about reading is to take no advice”; nevertheless, my advice, to be yourself and the otherness at the same time, is to read Bloom’s thoughts about a host of marvelous writers and poets..

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170 voted to renew UNRWA mandate

170 states voted yesterday for maintaining UNRWA’s mandate in UN general assembly. Only two states voted against. All the attempts to annulate UNRWA are to remove or cancel the only international witness for the crimes committed against uprooting almost one million Palestinians since 1948 from their homeland and houses; who are still awaiting to implement the international resolution 194 as well- for the right of return, restitution & compensation to refugees. UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) is a temporary organisation created to help Palestinian refugees until their return. Thanks to all these countries for their moral, human and political support.


Few Words of reminiscences: On the 15th anniversary of Abu Ammar’s absence:

On the 15th anniversary of his absence, Arafat was and still a rare phenomenon specifically,in modern Palestinian history and in Arab region’s scene as well. First encounter with him in a cave where he visited us in ‘Ajlone Mountains in 1968. That time he was only Brother Abu Ammar, even though he was president. He slept in the same cave with us, scores of Fida’yeen, from all walks of life, who had a dream, bigger than their youthful ages. I left American University scholarship behind, to join this early
dream: only to returning back to my home, my village in our ancestor’s land Falasteen…. A decade later in Beirut, when we came to his office at one or two o’clock in the morning to see him; he was there in his office ready to meet us any time in the early hours of the day to solve tens of small demands for the people’s needs. Before last time I met him at Copenhagen Airport hotel, taking photo with my wife and daughter. On her photo he wrote: see you Luma in Palestine. She was there. Last time we saw him in his besieged compound in Ramallah in 2004, with a Norwegian delegation, he talked about Beirut steadfastness. “88 days of besiege and bombardment achieved nothing” under your leadership. “89 days”: he corrected. Mahmoud Darweesh’s poem: “Besiege your Besiegement” was actual then and nowadays. “They succeeded to get me”, he said when he realized the sudden weakening of his body….. From Jordan to Syria, to Lebanon, to Iraq, to Copenhagen to Palestine: the dream is still flourishing and vivid, although saddened by huge losses and sufferings and grey hair that invaded both head and beard, but never approaches the will. Falasteen, the Idea, is more big than its geographical twenty seven thousand square meters; more big than its thirteen and half million people. Arafat’s few square meters of his besieged small room in al-Mokata’a (now part of Arafat’s Museum) is becoming hundreds and thousand square meters occupied by protesters in Alger, Yemen, Iraq and Beirut. His famous Kufiyyeh becomes part of the enriched symbolism of the depressed and marginals World Wide, whether in Sudan, Yemen, Iraq, Algeria, or Chile; all struggling to achieve few words: JUSTICE-FREEDOM-DIGNITY.

Comment on the Fiction of Narrative: Hayden White

Hayden white inspiring theories on history and stories: “all stories are fictions….depicted and presented  through metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, irony” he claims… is a fascinating and courageous attempt to analyze the structure of historical narratives, the philosophy of history , and the tropics of discourse and figurations …. especially his book (meta history: the historical imagination in nineteenth century Europe) is worth reading to open a new horizon to interpret our past histories of consciousness, through our present lenses.

The famous danish writer H.C.Andersen imprisoned a congolese woman for 16 hours in a cage, to hear her stories, according to Martin McDonagh

H.C.Andersen, the famous writer who dominate the cultural scene of Denmark’s literature, imprisoned an African woman, Margory, from Congo, in a cage, hearing from her a series of stories that inspired the Andersen in his literary career, according to playwright Martin McDonagh (A very very very dark matter) recently played in London, …A serious question of morality should be raised when great writers cover up their dark past era…A very very very dark matter indeed. Also Charles Dicken’s personal life has its dark hidden side as well, dealing with his wife, as new documents had shown recently….

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قد لا يختلف كثيرون حول مكانة الأديب الدنماركي هانز كريستيان أندرسن (1805ــ 1875) كأحد كبار مؤسسي قصة الأطفال بالمعنى الحديث للمصطلح، إنْ لم يكن الأبرز؛ خصوصاً في جوانب ا…

A comment on: two Egyptian and Palestinian films & A Japanese Novel of Akira Yoshimura: One Man’s Justice

A common theme in the Japanese Novel: One Man’s Justice of Akira Yoshimura, and the two Egyptian and Palestinian films, which I have seen yesterday at Cinemateket: Yomeddine of A.B.Shawky, & Screwdriver of Areen Omari… the loneliness of the marginal protagonist acing the cruelty of the social system—-Takuya in Akra’s novel, Ziad in Areen’s film and Beshay, suffering from Leprosy, in Shawky’s film……revenge leads to nowhere.

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Labour party voted for Palestinian Right to Return 23.sep 2019

Labour votes for Palestinian right to return

Delegates wave Palestinian flags at Labour’s annual conference in 2018.

 Asa Winstanley

Labour delegates voted overwhelmingly to recognize the right of Palestinian refugees to return to their homeland at the UK opposition party’s annual conference on Monday.

The historic motion opposes any proposed “solution” for Palestinians not based on international law, including their right “to return to their homes.”

It also reaffirms the party’s relatively new commitment to end all arms sales to Israel.

A motion passed last year calls for a Labour government to “freeze” arms sales to Israel. The motion passed on Monday calls for the party to end “any arms trade with Israel that is used in violation of the human rights of Palestinians.”

The Palestine Solidarity Campaign stated that the motion commits the party to ending the UK’s financial and military complicity with Israel’s oppression.

“Labour Party members have said in one voice to the Palestinian people – we stand with you in your fight for justice,” PSC director Ben Jamal stated.

“What is required now is for this crucial motion, passed overwhelmingly by members, to be translated into official party policy as we move towards the next general election.”

An election is expected within months.

A Labour government must “adhere to an ethical foreign policy” on trade with Israel, including ending any trade in arms used to violate Palestinians’ human rights, the motion passed on Monday states.

It also states that Labour “has a special responsibility to redress … ongoing injustices” due to colonial Britain’s role in the mass expulsion of Palestinians from their homeland.

Some 800,000 Palestinians were expelled by Zionist militias and later the Israeli army between 1947 and 1949. Israel has denied Palestinian refugees their right to return ever since.

British troops withdrew in 1948, giving the militias free rein, in some cases even aiding them first.

“Raise the pressure”

Britain’s trade union federation voted two weeks ago to recognize Palestinian refugees’ right of return.

The Trade Union Congress motion also calls for unions to “raise the pressure” on corporations complicit in human rights abuses against Palestinians, the Morning Star reported.

The Labour motion passed on Monday is a reversal of the position taken by the party in 1948, when it was in government in Britain.

The party went into the 1945 election with policy in place arguing for the ethnic cleansing of Palestinians. It stated that there was a necessity in Palestine “for transfer of population. Let the Arabs be encouraged to move out, as the Jews move in.”

The party at the time even advocated “the possibility” of expanding the borders of the future Jewish state by annexing parts of Jordan, Egypt or Syria.

The biographer of Labour chancellor Hugh Dalton, who authored this policy, described his vision as “Zionism plus plus.”

An earlier draft later toned down in subcommittee advocated “throwing open Libya or Eritrea to Jewish settlement, as satellites or colonies to [Jewish] Palestine.”

Comment on Abdel Aziz and Suad Taha’s book “Fra Libanon to Lærkevej”

Research interview is an art in itself. The knowledge we get from Abdel Aziz, Suad and Hamad is immense, rich and full of human gestures. Although the publisher have chosen to present a selective background history of the family’s Palestinian background, without mentioning the beginning of the European Zionist project to uproot the original Palestinian people that started earlier in Europe in 18th century, then inaugurating officially in 1897 in Basil, and later in the British Belfour declaration in 1917… The implementation of the biggest slowly ethnic cleansing process took place from that time. Then culminated in 1947-48 where 2/3 of the people of Palestine were unrooted- among those is the family of Suad and Hamad – from the completely demolished “Zeeb” village in northern Galilee…..This note that is missing, intentionaly, in the book is necessary to mention, as a background of this family who succeeded at all levels of their refugee life- in Lebanon, Dubai and lately in Denmark. A book worth reading as an example of good integration, while keeping the Palestinian roots flourishing from old to new generation. Thanks to Suad, Hamad and their son Abdel, who struggled successfuly to refind his identity, both as Palestinian and Danish.


Excerpts on “Lubya Village” From South African writer Heidi Grunbaum “Poetry Book of the Missing”

After Lubya village beneath decades of pine needles at South Africa Forest
After South Africa Forest, planted over the rubble of Lubya
by South African Jews who remember the Shoah
After Abdallah, steady on his shorter leg, took us deep into the forest
to the maqam and the graveyard and well
After Na’eem entered the maqam and prayed
After we passed trees of pomegranates and figs and olives that live, still live
After Abu Samiyeh returns to the village each week
for forty years to remember and to pray
After wiping out memory for six years times ten
After the scene of the crime was wiped clear with guns, trees, narratives
After ancient words for modern deeds
and pines bought by a thousand thousand white-blue pushkas
from Jewish homes a thousand lands away
After the patient sabr cactus stands watch over stones and rubble
and graves and wells
After the sabr like a silent wife waits for the return of her beloved
After this, after this, after all this
There is Palestine.
For the whole Poems read:

Comment on Mogens Blom’s Novel: Dobbelt Spil i Odessa


Difficult to leave the crime novel: “Dobbelt Spil i Odessa”, the moment you start. Exciting, full of lively series of incidents, covered plots and intrigues that covered less than a week’s time, and places from four continents: started in Kiev from Thursday morning and ending in Saturday morning. Although I know Mogens personal views, as I knew from my personal experience and work in “The Arab Initiative” Program, I would like to underline the frequent intentional negative portrayal of Arab images, whether in films, especially in hundreds of Hollywood films, or novels, pre and post 11.9…unfortunately becomes almost a trend in western fiction writings…..The last sections of the novel “12 days later on”, and that last section in Mogens’ earlier novel “Enken Fra Kiev” could be more concise, if not written out, to keep suspense and culmination sphere at its peak, I think. Worth Reading to cope with urgent phenomena dominating our daily political world.

Ahmad Dabash’s two articles about origins of Palestinians: worth reading





My Mother, Sadiyya Ali, left us early today in Copenhagen, 90 years old.


الحاجه سعديه محمد علي غادرتنا فجر هذا اليوم عن عمر ناهز التسعون عاما،. امنا الوحيدة التي

Youssef &Sadiyya

ملأت حياتنا حب و حنان و عطف و كبرياء ترتاح الان بعد حياة حافله بالعطاء تاركة خلفها ارث جميل و ١١ من الابناء و البنات و احفاد و احفاد احفاد في بلاد المهجر بعيده عن بلدتها الأم لوبيه و بلادها فلسطين، تلتحق بوالدنا بعد بضع سنوات. لك الرحمه والهدوء و السلام يا والدتنا الحبيبة.

Our beloved mother Sadiyya Mohammad Ali left us today early after 90 years of life struggle, full of love , dedication , passion. and education to her 11 sons and daughters, away from her Lubya birth place. May you rest in peace mother, in your second home in Danmark, after all this lovely and generous life, eventhough in exile.


Zionism and Jewish ethnicity:Role of ethnicity and language in identifying others: Joseph Masaad

الصهيونية و«العرق اليهودي»



لطالما كانت الصهيونية، شأنها في ذلك شأن جميع المشاريع الاستعمارية الاستيطانية، مهووسة بقضايا العرق. وحيث أنها برزت في أوج عصر الاستعمار الأوروبي وصعود علم الأعراق، فقد سعت إلى الإفادة من الاثنين. وقد أدرك الصهاينة مبكراً أن تقديمهم لمزاعم عرقية أساسيٌ وجوهريٌ لمشروعهم الاستعماري، وهو فهمٌ لم يزل يُلهم ويُملي السياسات الاستعمارية والإسرائيلية إلى اليوم.
قام علماء اللغة الأوروبيون في القرن الثامن عشر باختراع تصنيف «الساميّة» لوصف لغات شرق المتوسط والقرن الأفريقي – العربية والعبرية والآرامية والأمهرية وغيرها – لتمييزها عن اللغات الهندوأوروبية الآرية. ومنذ تلك اللحظة دأب المسيحيون الأوروبيون على اعتبار اليهود الأوروبيين، الذين لم يكونوا يتكلمون العبرية، «ساميين»، بناءً على المزاعم الدينية المسيحية واليهودية القائلة بأن اليهود الأوروبيين يتحدّرون من العبرانيين الفلسطينيين القدامى. لكن الغريب في الأمر هو أن أحداً لم يزعم في حينها أو حتى في عصرنا هذا أن المسيحيين الأوروبيين هم أيضاً يتحدرون بدورهم من المسيحيين الفلسطينيين القدامى.

يوم الغفران 1878 – رسم موريسي غوتليب

لقد أثبتت الأبحاث التاريخية منذ عدة عقود بأن مسيحيي ويهود أوروبا هم من شعوب أوروبا الأصلية الذين اعتنقوا الدينين الفلسطينيَّين، المسيحية واليهودية، وليسوا متحدّرين من معتنقيهما الأوائل، شأنهما في ذلك شأن المسلمين الإندونيسيين أو الصينيين أو البوسنيين اليوم الذين لا يمكن الزعم البتة من أنهم يتحدرون من المسلمين الأوائل من عرب الجزيرة العربية. لكن استمرار الاعتقاد بأن اليهود الأوروبيين أغراب عن أوروبا كان وما يزل ينهل من عمق الفكر العرقي الأوروبي ورسوخه ومن عمق النزعة العنصرية في ثقافة أوروبا، وهو اعتقاد تبنّته الحركة الصهيونية.
منذ نشأة اللاسامية كأيديولوجيا سياسية، تمسّكت بالتصنيف اللغوي للسامية، الذي قام اللاساميون بتحويله إلى تصنيف عرقي. وهو ما أصر عليه النمساوي فيلهلم مار، الذي نحت مصطلح «اللاسامية» في عام ١٨٧٩، زاعماً أن عداء اللاساميين لليهود لا يرتكز على أساس دينهم، وهي الحجة التي كانت معتمدة من قِبَل أعداء اليهود من المسيحيين الأوروبيين قبل ظهور اللاسامية، بل تحديداً على «عرقهم».
قبلت الصهيونية الزعم القائل بأن اليهود يشكلون «عرقاً» منفصلاً عن عرق الأغيار المسيحيين وتبنته كأساس لمشروعها الاستعماري. وكما كان الحال مع المسيحيين الأوروبيين الذين اعتبروا عرقهم «الأرقى» مبرِّراً لاستعمارهم لغير الأوروبيين، استخدم الصهاينة، كأعضاء جدد في نادي المستعمِرين الأوروبيين، حججاً مشابهة لاستعمار أرض الفلسطينيين. 
وفي سعيهم لتعزيز المزاعم العرقية الصهيونية، قام علماء يهود صهاينة بإنشاء «منظمة الإحصاءات اليهودية» في برلين في عام ١٩٠٢ لدراسة أسباب «الانحلال» العرقي عند اليهود الأوروبيين ومسائل أخرى ذات صلة. في واقع الأمر، كانت مسألة «الانحلال العرقي» قد برزت قبل ذلك بعقد من الزمن عندما قام ماكس نورداو، الرجل الثاني بعد ثيودور هرتسل في الحركة الصهيونية، باختراع مفهوم «الانحلال» في كتابه الذي روّج للموضوع والذي صدر في عام ١٨٩٢ تحت عنوان «الانحلال» أو Degeneration. وقد أصرّ العلماء الصهاينة على مفهوم «العرق اليهودي»، ومركزية الديموغرافيا اليهودية لبقاء العرق، والصحة الجسمانية ليهود أوروبا، ومعدل الزواج المختلط بغير اليهود، ومعدل الولادة عند اليهود، ناهيك عن معدل هجر اليهودية واعتناق اليهود للدين المسيحي. وقد قام العلماء الصهاينة بتشخيص حالة يهود أوروبا بالـ «انحلال» الذي زعموا بأنه أصابهم نتيجة وجودهم في الشتات. وبالتالي، كان مشروع الصهيونية لإعادة تأهيل «العرق اليهودي» قائماً على إنشاء دولة استعمارية – استيطانية لليهود الأوروبيين في فلسطين. المثير في هذه السجالات العرقية المبكرة داخل الحركة الصهيونية هو أن الصهاينة اعتبروا أن أسباب «انحلال» اليهود لم تكن «عرقية» بل «تاريخية»، وأنه بمقدور الحركة الصهيونية أن توقف هذا الانحلال المزعوم من خلال النشاط الصهيوني الثقافي والاستعماري.
وقد اعتبر الصهاينة أن انخفاض معدل الولادة عند اليهود هو دليلٌ على «الانحلال». فقد عبّر بعض العلماء الصهاينة، بمن فيهم إلياس آورباخ (طبيب) و ج. م. يودت (عالم إناسة) عن شدة قلقهم من مسألة نقاء العرق اليهودي. فقد حاججوا بأن العبرانيين القدامى اختلطوا بغيرهم من الساميين القدامى، ومن بعدهم بقي اليهود الأوروبيون منذ الحروب الصليبية وحتى الثورة الفرنسية أنقياء العرق جرّاء انعزالهم عن المسيحيين الأوروبيين. لكن الأمور اختلفت بعد عصر التنوير الذي هدد النقاء العرقي اليهودي بحسبهم، نتيجة الزواج المختلط الذي أدخل دماءً غير نقية في العرق. لكنهم سارعوا للتوضيح أن المسألة غير مقلقة حيث أن أغلبية الأطفال الناتجين عن الزواج المختلط يبقون لحسن الحظ خارج المجتمع اليهودي، كما هو الوضع في حالة اليهود الذين يهجرون دينهم ويعتنقون المسيحية، وهذا ما حافظ على نقاء العرق في المجتمعات اليهودية في أوروبا. لكن بالمقارنة بهذا الوضع العرقي، فإن الظروف الاجتماعية في الشتات واللاسامية هي ما شكلّت أسباب «الانحلال» الجسماني والنفسي عند اليهود، والتي بخلاف الانحلال العرقي يمكن التغلب عليه من خلال الاستعمار اليهودي لفلسطين، والذي شرعت الحركة الصهيونية في تحقيقه نيابة عن اليهود.

لم نزل نعيش في عصر علم الأعراق والتبريرات الاستعمارية كما كنّا في القرن التاسع عشر

لكن المعضلة التي واجهت الصهاينة هي أنه بعد تأكيدهم على أن اليهود يشكلون عرقاً كان عليهم أن يثبتوا بأنهم متحدرون من العبرانيين القدامى، وهو زعمٌ كان ينافسهم عليه شعب آخر، لا سيما الشعب الفلسطيني الذي سكن فلسطين منذ الأزل. 
وكما هو الحال مع جيرانهم المصريين والسوريين والعراقيين، يقال إن الفلسطينيين اختلطوا بالفاتحين العرب المتحدرين من الجزيرة العربية بعد غزوهم المنطقة في القرن السابع. فلا يزعم الصهاينة مثلاً بأن المصريين والسوريين والعراقيين المعاصرين هم حصرياً من سلالة عرب الجزيرة العربية، بل بأنهم الشعوب الأصلية لهذه البلاد التي اختلطت بعرب الجزيرة (وهنا تجدر الإشارة إلى أن الفاتحين العرب المسلمين لم يستوطنوا هذه المناطق بل أنشأوا معسكرات منفصلة سكنها الجنود المسلمون خارج المدن). لكن، رغم ذلك، يصر الصهاينة على زعمهم الخيالي بأن الفلسطينيين، بخلاف جيرانهم، يتحدرون حصرياً من عرب الحزيرة العربية. وتغدو المزاعم الصهيونية جوهرية في هذا السياق بالتحديد.
وحيث إن المصريين المعاصرين يدّعون بأنهم يتحدرون من المصريين القدامى أو الفراعنة دون إثارة القلاقل، كما يدعي العراقيون المعاصرون أنهم يتحدّرون من البابليين والسومريين وغيرهم ممن استوطن بلاد ما بين النهرين، ويدّعي الأردنيون المعاصرون بأنهم يتحدرون من الأنباط… إلخ، يأتي التهديد من الفلسطينيين الذين يدعون أن العبرانيين القدامى ومعهم كل الشعوب التي سكنت أرض فلسطين في تلك الفترة، لا سيما الكنعانيين والفلسطينيين القدامى Philistines، هم أجدادهم.
والمفارقة هنا تكمن في أن مؤسسي دولة إسرائيل الحديثة، دافيد ين غوريون ويتسحاق بن تسفي (الذي شغل منصب رئيس جمهوية إسرائيل الثاني بعد إقامة الدولة) أصرّا في كتاب نشراه في عام ١٩١٨ بأن الفلاحين الفلسطينيين (الذين كانوا أغلبية الشعب الفلسطيني في تلك الفترة) يتحدورن من العبرانيين القدامى. وقد حافظ الفلاحون الفلسطينيون، بحسب المؤلفين، على تقاليد أجدادهم العبرانيين، لا سيما بحفاظهم على ذات الأسماء القديمة لقُراهم. وبالفعل «رغم الاختلاط الكبير الذي حصل، بقي أغلبية الفلاحين في فلسطين الغربية [أي خارج منطقة شرق الأردن] موحّدين في هيئتهم الخارجية وفي أصولهم، وفي عروقهم تجري الكثير من الدماء اليهودية دون شك، والتي أتتهم من الفلاحين اليهود الذين في سنوات المعاناة والاضطهاد المروّع تخلّوا عن تقاليدهم وشعبهم كي يحافظوا على ارتباطهم وإخلاصهم لأرض اليهود».
أما أن يقوم قادة الحركة الصهيونية بالإقرار بأن الفلسطينيين هم السكان القدامى لهذه الأرض، وبأن أغلبهم قد هجر دينه اليهودي والأديان الأخرى في تلك الفترة واعتنق المسيحية وبعد ذلك اعتنق معظمهم الإسلام، فقد شكّل سابقة خطيرة كان ينبغي أن تُمحى من الذاكرة الرسمية للصهيونية وإسرائيل. وهذا بالفعل ما حصل.
يبدو أن هذه الخلفية هي ما يرعب أيديولوجيي الصهيونية ومزاعمهم العرقية. وقد مثّل التقدم الذي حصل في العقود القليلة الماضية في علم الوراثة والمزاعم الواهية لممتهني هذا العلم التجاريين هدية كبيرة لمروجي العرقية الصهاينة. وحيث إن بحث المشعوذين عن «الجين اليهودي» أصبح الكنز المدفون الذي ينبغي على علماء الأعراق والعلماء العنصريين أن يعثروا عليه، وجد البعض في إسرائيل فيه استخدامات عملية على الفور لزيادة عدد اليهود على مستوى العالم، وبالتالي زيادة عدد من تقول الصهيونية بأنهم يمتلكون حقاً استعمارياً للاستيلاء على أرض الفلسطينيين. وقد قام منذ عامين بعض الخبراء الإسرائيليين في علم الجينات و«الهلخه» (أو الشريعة اليهودية) «بدراسة ما يدعونه بالـ «الجين اليهودي»» زاعمين «أن هذا الجين سيساعد في إثبات يهودية الأشخاص بحسب الشرع اليهودي»، وهو ما سيجنّب من لا يستطيع إقناع الحاخامات بيهوديته ضرورة خوض العملية والطقوس الشاقة لاعتناق الدين اليهودي. 
وتماشياً مع علم الوراثة هذا المليء بالدجل، قفز بنيامين نتنياهو ابتهاجاً جراء استنتاجات علماء الوراثة والآثار الذين اكتشفوا مؤخرّاً بعض الهياكل العظمية للفلسطينيين القدامى والتي قالوا إن علاماتها الجينية تؤشر إلى أنهم قد أتوا أصلاً من جنوب أوروبا، وهو ما أثبت للعرقيّين الصهاينة بأن ليس للفلسطينيين المعاصرين (الذين يعتبرونهم أحفاد عرب الجزيرة العربية) أي صلة بالفلسطينيين القدامى وبالتالي لا يمتلكون أي حق في وطنهم.
إن الحجج التي تقدمها الصهيونية ذات شقين: الزعم الصهيوني الأول الذي يقدّم بلا سند هو أن الأوروبيين الذين اعتنقوا الدين اليهودي وأحفادهم هم الفلسطينيون الأصليون الحقيقيون والذين غابوا عن البلاد لمدة ألفي سنة لكنهم ما زالوا يمتلكون «حق» العودة إلى وطنهم القديم والاستيلاء عليه وطرد سكانه منه؛ أما الزعم الثاني والمكمّل للأول فهو أن الشعب الفلسطيني الأصلي هم الغرباء عن هذه الأرض وبأنهم هم، وليس اليهود الأوروبيون، من يتحدرون من أصول خارج فلسطين. وبخلاف اليهود الأوروبيين الذين يستطيعون الحفاظ بعد ألفي عام من وجودهم في أوروبا على «حق العودة» إلى أرض آسيوية لم يأتوا منها، فإن ليس للفلسطينيين الذين طردتهم إسرائيل من وطنهم في عام ١٩٤٨ وما بعد الحق في العودة إلى ديارهم بعد سبعة عقود فقط من نفيهم عنها. فما يجعل هذه الحجة الإسرائيلية العنصرية مقبولة لدى أغلب البيض الأميركيين والأوروبيين هي العرقية التي تشكّل مرساتَها منذ القرن التاسع عشر.
لم نزل نعيش في عصر علم الأعراق والتبريرات الاستعمارية كما كنّا في القرن التاسع عشر. وتكمن المفارقة هنا في أن مناصري إسرائيل والصهيونية الليبراليين والمحافظين الأوروبيين والأميركيين، من اليهود والمسيحيين الأغيار على حد سواء، لا يجدون ما يبغضونه في هذا الالتزام الصهيوني بالاثنين والإصرار عليهما. 
* أستاذ السياسة وتاريخ الفكر العربي الحديث في جامعة كولومبيا في نيويورك، صدر له حديثاً كتاب «الإسلام في الليبرالية» عن جداول للنشر، بيروت (٢٠١٨) وكتاب «آثار استعمارية: تشكّل الهوية الوطنية في الأردن» عن دار مدارات، القاهرة (٢٠١٩)

50th Annivarsary of the first film by the Palestinian Unit: Khadijeh Habashneh

50th Anniversary of the first film by the Palestine Film Unit

Prepared by Khadijeh Habashneh *


This year, 2019, marks the 50th anniversary of the first Palestinian film produced by the Palestine Film Unit (PFU), which was founded by three of the earliest cinema institute graduate filmmakers, and is considered the first specialized film unit to accompany a national liberation movement from its inception. This year also marks the 10th anniversary of the passing of Mustafa Abu Ali, on July 30th, 2009, one of the founders of this unit, and who developed it into one of the landmarks of revolutionary cinema in the world.


There are many progressive filmmakers who produced films about peoples’ revolutions and national liberation movements, but there were no dedicated film teams that were established along side a national liberation movement, with the unit’s members living with the fighters through their battles, sharing their modest and austere living conditions.


The film team began its activities with an initiative from cinematographer Sulafa Jadallah, the first Arab woman cinematographer, a graduate of the Higher Institute of Cinema in Cairo. She began by producing photographs of martyred fighters using personal equipment at her home. Later she was joined by cinematographer Hani Jawhariyya and director Mustafa Abu Ali, both graduates of London film institutes. Using a borrowed camera, they began photographing and documenting the events and activities of the revolution and its battles in 1968. They produced their first film at the end of 1969.


The film unit, considered the first Palestinian film initiative, was able to develop into a cinema institution (The Palestinian Cinema Institute) that evolved to include several film teams. By the end of 1982, the institute had produced more than thirty films and news reels, that played a part in mobilizing the rank and file of the Palestinian and Arab people around the revolution. It also played its part in introducing the world to various aspects of the Palestinian issue and the tragedy that befell the Palestinian people in 1948.


We owe it to the Palestine Film Unit, and its courageous founding artists, to celebrate and honour their sacrifice and pioneering work.


Note: Books and other publications about the history of the PFU, and the life and work of Mustafa Abu Ali, are currently underway. Some of the PFU’s films will be available for screening on the occasion, as a result of the Old Palestinian Films Preservation project.


Khadijeh Habashneh

Writer, Filmmaker

Coordinator of the Old Palestinian Films Preservation project.

Director, responsible of the archive and cinematheque / Palestinian Cinema Institute, 1974-1982.

An interesting article on Who are the builders of Orsalem- alQuds, where Alaa al-Lami depends on two Palestinian archiologists: Hani Nur al-Deen & Issa al-Saree



مَن هم بُناة أورشليم القدس الأوائل؟
(أ ف ب )
العصر البرونزي هو الذي توصل فيه الإنسان القديم إلى صناعة السبائك المعدنية بمزج أملاح النحاس بالفحم النباتي، ثم يُخلَط النحاس الخام بالقصدير. لم يبدأ هذا العصر بداية واحدة في مختلف القارات، فهو إذا كان قد بدأ – وفق أغلب التقديرات – في «الشرق الأوسط» الآسيوي منذ ثلاثة آلاف سنة قبل الميلاد وحتى عام 1200 ق.م، فإنه لم يبدأ في أوروبا عموماً إلا بعد ذلك بخمسة قرون تقريباً.
وقد شهدت نهاية العصر البرونزي ظهور أولى الحضارات الإنسانية في آسيا وإفريقيا؛ فخلال هذا العصر ظهرت أقدم حضارتين إنسانيتين في بلاد الرافدين بآسيا ووادي النيل بإفريقيا. وقبل الميلاد بثلاثة آلاف سنة، ظهرت الكتابة المسمارية في جنوب بلاد الرافدين – العراق القديم – وبعدها بعدة قرون ظهرت الكتابة الهيروغليفية في وادي النيل.
في العصر البرونزي، كانت البلاد التي نسمّيها اليوم «فلسطين»، تشهد نهايات عصر نمط حياة الصيد والالتقاط والترحال، فيما يعود ظهور الإنسان على أرضها إلى عهود سحيقة أقدم. وشهِد هذا العصر في عهده الأقدم بدايات مرحلة التمركز السكاني ونشوء التجمعات البشرية الثابتة نسبياً، والانتقال إلى نمط حياة القرى المحصنة، ثم «دول المدن». وتشذُّ مدينة أريحا عن هذا التزمين، فقد عاشت هذا الطور قبل العصر البرونزي بعدة آلاف من السنوات، ثم اندثرت، ثم عادت إلى الوجود مجدداً. وكان أغلب الخبراء والباحثين يرجحون أن أولى الهجرات الجزيرية «السامية» إلى هذه البلاد هي الهجرة الكنعانية التي حدثت بحدود القرن الخامس والعشرين ق.م.، غير أنَّ هناك باحثين بدأوا بمراجعة فكرة الهجرات الجزيرية هذه، وتوصل بعضهم إلى إنكار حدوثها أو التحفظ عليها؛ كما سنبيّن بعد قليل.
إنَّ المعطيات التي ظلت متداولة طوال القرن الماضي، تقول إنَّ العصر البرونزي القديم يمتد من 3300 وحتى 2000 ق.م، وخلال الألف الثالث قبل الميلاد، هاجر العموريون «الأموريون» والكنعانيون، وكذلك اليبوسيون والفينيقيون، إلى فلسطين وعموم الإقليم الذي نطلق عليه اليوم «بلاد الشام»، حيث استقرّ الكنعانيون في سهول فلسطين، وتركز العموريون في الجبال، واستقرّ اليبوسيون في القدس وما حولها، وهم الذين أنشأوا مدينة القدس وسمّوها في البداية «يبوس»، ثم «أورسالم – أورساليم». أما الفينيقيون، فاستقروا في الساحل الشمالي لفلسطين، صعوداً إلى الساحل في ما نسيمه اليوم «لبنان».

إن فكرة وجود أقوام في فلسطين قبل الهجرة الجزيرية «السامية» أمر يؤكده باحثون كثيرون

غير أن هذه المعطيات التي اكتسبت نوعاً من الشيوع والاستقرار الأكاديمي النسبي لزمن طويل أثارت في السنوات الماضية العديد من التحفظات، وأجريت عليها العديد من التعديلات الجوهرية في اتجاهين رئيسين:
الاتجاه الأول ينحو منحى التقليل من أهمية اليبوسيين في بناء القدس أو نفيها تماماً. فالباحثان الآثاريان الفلسطينيان عيسى الصريع وهاني نور الدين، يذهبان إلى أن المصدر الوحيد الذي ذكر اسم اليبوسيين ودورهم في القدس هو التوراة، التي لا يعوّل عليها ككتاب تأريخي موثوق، وهذا هو السبب الأول. أما الثاني، فهو عدم العثور على أي أثر أو سند أركيولوجي مكتوب أو غير مكتوب يؤكد ما ذهبت إليه التوراة حول اليبوسيين في الوقت الذي وجدت فيه أدلة من هذا النوع تؤكد وجود الكنعانيين وهويتهم (برنامج علمي تلفزيوني بعنوان «عين على القدس» بثه التلفزيون الأردني في 05.10.2015). ويستنتج الباحثان من هذه المقدمات، أنّ الكنعانيين الذين تأكد وجودهم من خلال الآثار المصرية الفرعونية والرافدينية والشامية لذلك العصر هم بناة أورشليم القدس، وهم مَن أطلقوا عليها هذا الاسم. ويستدركان بأن اليبوسيين وملكهم المذكور في التوراة ملكي صادق، ربما كانوا مجرد أسرة أو عشيرة صغيرة من أولئك الكنعانيين الأوائل. بل إن الصريع يذهب أبعد من ذلك، وينفي حصول هجرة كنعانية من الجزيرة العربية إلى منطقة القدس، ويعتبر الكنعانيين قوماً من السكان الفلسطينيين الأصليين هويةً ووجوداً سكانياً، وقد تطوروا ذاتياً بمرور العهود. ويعلّل احتمال عدم حصول هجرة كنعانية من الجزيرة بأسباب بعضها وجيه علمياً. ومن تلك الأسباب قوله إن المناطق التي وجد فيها الكنعانيون، أي في محيط تلال القدس، ليس فيها ما يجذب المهاجرين من مسافات بعيدة، كالمياه الوافرة والزراعة المستقرة وتربية الحيوان. فالمنطقة المقصودة كانت شبه جرداء وصعبة طوبوغرافياً وجافة مناخياً. ويفسّر الصريع تعاظم دور الكنعانيين ووزنهم التاريخي لاحقاً، بما يسميه «التطور الذاتي» للأقوام الفلسطينية التي كانت تعيش ضمن إطار الثقافة الغسولية. أما هاني نور الدين، الذي يتفق كثيراً مع زميله الصريع في ما ذهب إليه، فيسمّي هذا العامل «التراكم الحضاري» لمجموعات السكان الأصلية في تلك المنطقة.
أما الاتجاه الثاني لتلك المراجعات والتعديلات على الأفكار السائدة بخصوص القدس في العصر البرونزي، فهو الذي عبّر عنه الباحث العراقي خزعل الماجدي في كتابه «تاريخ القدس القديم»، الصادر عام 2017. فقد اعتبر الماجدي أن فلسطين كانت في العصر البرونزي المبكر أمورية من حيث سكانها وهويتها الأساسية، وأن الأموريين هم الذين بنوا العديد من المدن في وسط فلسطين، وخصوصاً في تلال القدس، ومنها مدينة أورسالم على جبل أوفل.
ومن الأفكار المهمة والتخمينات التحليلية الجديرة بالتمعن والتمحيص والإسناد الآثاري التي يطرحها الماجدي، اعتقاده «أن الصخرة المقدسة لبيت المقدس، التي بنى فوقها الخليفة الأموي عبد الملك بن مروان قبة الصخرة، كانت مقدسة عند الكنعانيين بصفة عامة، ثم عند اليبوسيين بصفة خاصة (…) ورغم أن هذه الصخرة كانت خارج مدينة القدس الكنعانية، وعلى مرتفعات موريا، ولكنها كانت مقدسة مثل جبل موريا نفسه. وتروي الأخبار أن ملكي صادق، كاهن وملك القدس الثانية، كان يقدم الأضاحي والقرابين ويقوم بالطقوس الدينية عند هذه الصخرة» (ص 86). وليت الباحث توقف عند تلك الأخبار بشيء من التفصيل والتوثيق؛ إذ كان ذلك مفيداً وذا دلالة. أما بخصوص الجذور الأقدم لهيكل سليمان في الرواية التوراتية، فيسجل الماجدي أن «تقديس الإله شاليم ظل قائماً في القدس اليبوسية، باعتباره إله المدينة وحاميها، ولكننا لا نعرف على وجه الدقة مكان هيكل شاليم وفيما إذا جدد بناؤه أو لا في العصر البرونزي المتأخر» (ص 130). لافتاً الانتباه إلى أنّ علينا «أن نتحاشى اللبس الشائع والخطير الذي يمثله ارتباط «صهيون» باليهود وإسرائيل وغير ذلك، لأن صهيون لا علاقة له مطلقاً في بداياته بهؤلاء الذين لم يكن لهم وجود حين أطلقت هذه التسمية على الجبل، فـ«صهيون» اسم كنعاني أيضاً، ولكن اليهود الذين ما زال على ظهورهم ألف سنة سرقوا هذا الاسم واعتبروه جزءاً من تراثهم في مدينة القدس مثلما سرقوا هيكل شليم واعتبروه هيكل سليمان وأصبح مركز عقيدتهم» (ص133). ثم يوضح الباحث جذور تسمية «صهيون» ويؤثلها إلى صفُن أو صفون، وهو الجبل الذي دفن فيه الإله الكنعاني بعل بعد صراعه المتجدد مع الإله «موت» كل سبع سنوات، حيث تقوم زوجته «عناة» بدفنه هناك. واعتقد أن هذا التفسير جدير بالاعتبار والمزيد من الاهتمام البحثي.
وحين يراجع الماجدي جداول طبقات تربة القدس الأركيولوجية الواحدة والعشرين التي توصلت إلى وضعها البعثات الآثارية الأجنبية خلال القرنين الماضيين، ويتوقف عند طبقات العصر البرونزي، وتحديداً عند الطبقة العشرين، يسجل أن «مدينة القدس قد بنيت في بداية العصر البرونزي المبكر، أي قبل مجيء الكنعانيين واليبوسيين وبنائهم المدينة كما هو شائع، وهذا يشير إلى أن القدس الأولى كانت – موجودة – في العصر البرونزي المبكر، وأنها على الأرجح كانت ذات هوية أمورية» (ص71). يبقى كلام الماجدي إذاً في حدود الترجيح النظري، ولكنه ترجيح ينطوي على منطق قوي. ومن الأدلة الآثارية التي يستشهد بها الباحث لتأكيد وجود القدس في بداية ومنتصف العصر البرونزي؛ الخزفيات والألواح التي عثر عليها في مدينة ومملكة إبلا، المسمارية الكتابة، (تقع اليوم شمال غربي الجمهورية العربية السورية)، ويرد فيها اسم أورسليم. 
يلخص الماجدي وجهة نظره في هوية بُناة وسكان أورشليم القدس البرونزية فيسجل أن ما يسمى القدس اليبوسية، قد ظهرت في نهايات العصر البرونزي، وبعد انتهاء وجود القدس الأمورية – الأولى -، ولكنه يضيف مرجحاً أن مدينة القدس في العصر البرونزي الأوسط إنما (بناها عموم الكنعانيين وليس طبقتهم الارستقراطية التي كانت تتزعمها قبيلة «يبوس». أما قدس العصر البرونزي الأوسط فنستطيع أن نطلق عليها اسم «القدس الكنعانية» وبالتحديد «أورسالم» أي «مدينة سالم» الذي كان إله المدينة الحامي والرئيس لها (ص79). ونكرر أن هذا الاعتقاد يبقى مهماً وواعداً، لكنه يحتاج إلى المزيد من التفحص العلمي والأدلة الأركيولوجية وغير الأركيولوجية الساندة.

التفسير الجديد
أما بخصوص التفسير الجديد الذي يقترحه الماجدي لاسم المدينة «أورساليم/ أورشاليم»، بعيداً عن التفسير الشائع والقائل إنه يعني «مدينة السلام» والمؤلف من المفردة السومرية الجذور «أور» تعني مدينة، وهذا صحيح، وشاليم أو ساليم تعني السلام، وهذا غير صحيح كما يعتقد، لأن معنى السلام من المعاني الثانوية لكلمة سالم في اللغات السامية. أما المعنى الأول لها، فهو الكمال والتمام. وقد مرّ بنا التفسير الذي ترجحه كارين آرمسترونغ لهذا الاسم في كتابها «القدس مدينة واحدة، عقائد ثلاث» (ص 28)، حيث قالت إنه «هو نفسه الشمس الغاربة أو كوكب المساء».
والتفسير الجديد الذي يقدمه الماجدي يقوم على اعتبار سلم، شلم، شالم أو سالم اسماً خاصاً بالإله الحامي والخاص بالمدينة منذ تأسيسها على أيدي الأموريين. ويضف الماجدي موضحاً أن سالم «هو ابن الإله إيل، ولكنه لا يأتي عن طريق الاتصال الجنسي، بل عن طريق التقبيل والعناق» (ص99)، مستنداً في تأثيله هذا إلى أسطورة كنعانية تعرف باسم «أسطورة مولد الآلهة الجميلة»، ومقتبساً نصها المترجم إلى العربية الذي ترجمه أنيس فريحة. والواقع، أن تفسير الماجدي هذا لاسم القدس يعبّر عن وجهة نظر مهمة وقابلة للنقاش، رغم أنه يعتمد أساساً على التحليلات والتخريجات اللغوية لمادة أسطورية آتية من مكان بعيد نسبياً عن القدس ومحيطها. فقد عثر على ألواح هذه الأسطورة الكنعانية ضمن أساطير أوغاريت الكنعانية شمال سوريا الحالية قرب اللاذقية، وليس لأثر مادي مباشر، سواء كان مكتوباً أو غير مكتوب، من الميدان الأركيولوجي المقدسي؛ ثم إن هوية الأسطورة الكنعانية يمكن توظيفها ضد وجهة نظر الماجدي ولمصلحة إضفاء الهوية الكنعانية، لا الأمورية على المدينة.

الوجود السكاني البشري في محيط القدس يعود إلى ربع مليون سنة ق.م

وبالعودة إلى الباحثَين الفلسطينيين الصريع ونور الدين، نرى أنهما يؤكدان أن نمط الحياة الغسولي – نسبة إلى تليلات الغسول شمال شرق البحر الميت – الذي وجدت آثاره في مناطق عديدة في فلسطين، منها منطقة القدس، هو الاحتمال الأكثر ترجيحاً لأصول السكان المقصودين، والذين أطلق عليهم اسم الكنعانيين وبضمنهم اليبوسيون. وحتى بهذه الحدود، التي يتكلم فيها وعنها الباحثان الفلسطينيان والباحث العراقي، فهذا لا ينفي أن بناة أورشليم القدس وسكانها الأوائل، لعهود طويلة، هم جزيريون «ساميون» بالمعنى الإثني العام للكلمة التي تطلق على الفَرْشَة الإناسية «الأنثروبولوجية» للمشرق العربي بين دجلة شرقاً وضفاف المتوسط شرقاً، وكانت تضم أقواماً سابقين للهجرة الجزيرية المفترضة، ما لبثوا أن اختلطوا واندمجوا بهم.
إن فكرة وجود أقوام في فلسطين قبل الهجرة الجزيرية «السامية» المفترضة أمر يؤكده باحثون كثيرون، وقد لخص باحث فلسطيني آخر هو يوسف سامي اليوسف هذه الفكرة تلخيصاً ممتازاً بقوله: «ومما هو جدير بالتنويه، أن معظم المدن الفلسطينية التي أصبحت لها أسماء كنعانية في أواخر الألف الثالث ق.م، لم تكن من إنشاء الكنعانيين على الإطلاق. وليس بإمكاننا اليوم أن نحدد هوية الأقوام التي بنت تلك المدن. وعلى أية حال، إن الساميين حين وفدوا إلى فلسطين في أواسط الألف الثالث ق.م، قد وجدوا فيها حضارة متطورة صالحة للدخول في التاريخ. ولكنهم سرعان ما طبعوا الإقليم كله بطابعهم بعدما تمثَّلوا منجزاته الحضارية برمتها» («تاريخ فلسطين عبر العصور»، ص24).
غير أنَّ وجود بقايا آثارية غسولية لا تقول الكثير من المعطيات بخصوص هوية أولئك الأقوام الأصليين وغير الجزيريين لا يحلّ الإشكال القائم تماماً، وقد يدفع إلى طرح المزيد من الأسئلة، بانتظار ما تجود به فؤوس الأركيولوجيا، ولكنه قد يكون مفيداً لمراجعة موضوعة «اليبوسيون بُناة القدس» ووضعها في الإطار الكنعاني الأعمّ الذي كان سائداً في مناطق واسعة بين الفرات وضفاف المتوسط.
في هذا السياق، يلفت الباحث الصريع الانتباه إلى أن هناك إصراراً لدى الباحثين «الإسرائيليين» على عملية «تمرحل» تاريخ القدس في العصر البرونزي وتقسيمه إلى مرحلة يبوسية؛ ثم أخرى كنعانية؛ تمهيداً لاعتبار ما بقي من مراحل مرحلة عبرانية يهودية واحدة وطويلة. بل إن بعض علماء الآثار «الإسرائيليين» حاولوا مصادرة العصر الحديدي اللاحق للبرونزي كله، كما تخبرنا الباحثة الهولندية مارغريت شتاينر في كتابها «القدس في العصر الحديدي» (ص 178)، وأطلقوا عليه اسم «المرحلة الإسرائيلية»، ولكنهم تراجعوا عن ذلك لاحقاً، ربما بسبب فجاجة هذه التسمية اللاعلمية، وهذا أمر مقصود وغير صحيح. ففلسطين، وأورشليم القدس منها بمثابة القلب، بقيت كنعانية طوال تاريخها من الناحية الإناسية «الأنثروبولوجية» والعرقية «الإثنوغرافية» وبشكل غالب ورئيس. وهذا الرأي بدوره لا ينفي تماماً حدوث هجرات أقوامية في تلك العصور، التي وسمتها هذه الظاهرة الشاملة بوسمها. 
وبما أن كلمة اليبوسيين، يستكمل الباحث نور الدين كلام زميله الصريع، كلمة غير تاريخية، فيجب ألا يقع المتخصصون العرب في التاريخ والآثار في فخها، بما يجعلهم رهائن للقناعة التوراتية غير التأريخية بدورها. والواقع أن حجج الباحثَين الفلسطينيين، نور الدين والصريع، جديرة بالتأمل العميق، خصوصاً وهي تستند في المقاوم الأول إلى منجزات علم الآثار وما قدمه من الثمار المادية المهمة؛ إضافة إلى كشوفات علم المناخ والبيئة.
ومن المعلومات والكشوفات الأركيولوجية اللافتة التي أعلنها الصريع، تأكيده أن الوجود السكاني البشري في محيط القدس يعود إلى ربع مليون سنة ق.م، بدليل المخلفات التي عُثر عليها في منطقة «سور باهر»، أما في وادي قالونيا – يضيف الصريع – فهناك دلائل ومخلفات تؤكد أن الاستيطان البشري في هذه المنطقة بدأ قبل عشرة آلاف سنة ق.م، واستمر حتى الفترة البرونزية المتأخرة وما بعدها. وكل هذا يعني، أن جغرافية القدس العامة تؤكد أن هذه المنطقة مسكونة بشرياً منذ أقدم العصور، رغم أنها مرت بظروف جفاف وجدب وقلة سكان في فترات مختلفة، لكن الاستيطان البشري فيها لا يمكن أن يختصره مظهر واحد من مظاهره في هذا التل المقدسي أو ذاك فقط، أو يذكره كتاب ديني غير تأريخي، ولا نجد له أي أثر أركيولوجي ملموس.
نختم بالقول، سواء كان بُناة القدس القديمة في العصر البرونزي هم الأموريين الذين بنوا حضارة بابل وعاصمتها شرقاً في العراق القديم، والعديد من الممالك في بلاد الشام الداخلية، أو كانوا يبوسيين أو كنعانيين، فهذا يؤكد هوية أورشليم القدس الجزيرية «السامية» وانعدام أية علاقة لها تأسيساً وتسميةً وهوية إثنية أو دينية بالعبرانيين أو بني إسرائيل القدماء.
*كاتب عراقي

**هذه المقالة جزء من دراسة طويلة في الموضوع ستصدر لاحقاً في كتاب «نقد الجغرافيا التوراتية ودراسات أخرى»، نشر جزء آخر منها في 4 حزيران 2019.

Our First Volume of PaHH(Palestine History & Heritage Project)-Routledge, London & New York, 2019

20 different scholars from different disciplines are contributing to our first volume (out of 10 expected).-covering four major parts: Historiography-Ethnicity, Geography,&Politics-Landscape, Archeology &Memory-Ideologies of the land.

My article on Oral history’s credibility , role and functionality from Arab Islamic tradition to modern historiography  PP 125-140:

Article on Oral History pdf 

To reserve the book:

خزعل الماجدي بعنوان «أنبياء سومريون ـــــ كيف تحول عشرة ملوك سومريين إلى أنبياء توراتيين؟ » Alaa alLami comments on al.Majidi book: How Somarian kings became Tora¨s prophets

خزعل الماجدي: ملوك سومريون أم أنبياء توراتيون؟




عن دار «المركز الثقافي للكتاب» في الرباط وبيروت، صدر كتاب جديد للباحث العراقي في «الرافدينيات» خزعل الماجدي بعنوان «أنبياء سومريون ـــــ كيف تحول عشرة ملوك سومريين إلى أنبياء توراتيين؟». هذا الكتاب مهم لناحية موضوعه، وجريء في طريقة تناوله بعلمية ومنهجية دقيقة، فهو يتناول موضوعاً شديد الحساسية بسبب انغراسه عميقاً في المقدس الديني في الديانات الإبراهيمية الثلاث، والمقدس التوراتي خصوصاً. وهو ما أشار إليه المؤلف في مقدمته بقوله إن كتابه «يكسر عند الناس واحداً من أكبر التابوهات التي تخص بداية ظهور الإنسان وظهور الأنبياء الأوائل». والتابو الذي يقصده الكاتب هو ذاك الذي يغطي موضوع أصول الديانات السماوية، وقضية خلق العالم والإنسان وجذورها الأسطورية في عصور ما قبل الطوفان، وكيف قدمتها الديانات السماوية الثلاث الأكبر لاحقاً. فقد ساد اقتناع أولي، مع بدايات الكشوفات الآثارية الأركيولوجية في بلاد الرافدين، بأنها ذات أصول رافدينية سومرية انتُحِلَت أو انتقلت بطريقة التناص إلى السردية التوراتية اليهودية، ومنها انتقلت لاحقاً إلى الديانتين الإبراهيميتين الأخريين المسيحية فالإسلام. لكن الماجدي يحاول أن يفكك ويوضح ـــ مستعيناً بما يقدمه علم الآثار الحديث من أدلة مادية ـــــ تفاصيل وجذور تلك الأصول الرافدينية السومرية، ليستنبط منها لاحقاً آليات تكوّنها وانعكاساتها وانتقالاتها من سردية إلى أخرى. إن الهاجس الموضوعي والانشداد إلى المقاربة الدقيقة للحقيقة هو ما يحفظ المؤلف من الانزلاق وراء تقديم أحكام باترة وقاطعة. وهذا ما نجده غالباً في كتاب الماجدي، فهو يتوخّى الدقة ونقل الرأي المخالف، ليصوغ، من ثمَّ، خلاصاته واستنتاجاته بحذر ودراية وبلغة متسائلة، شكاكة، بعيدة عن القطع في أمور لا يجوز القطع فيها.


إن موضوع المقارنة بين السردية الرافدينية والأخرى التوراتية ليس جديداً. فقد طُرِحَ في الثمانينات من القرن التاسع عشر من قِبل وينكلر وعلماء مدرسة «توراة بابل» الذين قالوا إنّ «معظم حكايات العهد القديم وخصوصاً أسفار موسى الخمسة، هي انعكاس للأدب المسماري «الرافديني»». لكن ماير، زميل وتلميذ العالم الشهير ويلهاوزن، رفض ذلك وقال إن تلك الحكايات التوراتية «كانت في الأصل مرويات شفهية ومجموعات من القصص المؤلفة من الحكايات الشعبية والأساطير والملاحم» (طومسون 12). ثم تناول تلك العلاقة بالدراسة والعرض والتمحيص باحثون عرب وأجانب آخرون من بينهم الباحث العراقي الراحل فاضل عبد الواحد في كتابه «من سومر إلى التوراة» سنة 1989، ولكنه لم يتوقف تحديداً وبالتفصيل لموضوع العلاقة بين ملوك سومريين وأنبياء توراتيين لعصور ما قبل الطوفان. كذلك قارب هذا الموضوع الباحث فراس السواح في كتابه «مغامرة العقل الأولى» سنة 1976، لكنه اكتفى بحشد كمٍّ مهم من النصوص الرافدينية ذات العلاقة بالنصوص التوراتية، تاركاً مهمة المقارنة والتحليل والخروج بالاستنتاجات الحاسمة للقارئ! ومن الباحثين الأجانب ألّف فردريك ديليتش كتابه الشهير «بابل والكتاب المقدس» الذي ترجم إلى العربية سنة 1987، وهو كتاب مفيد فعلاً، ولكنه مضطرب من الناحية العلمية وينحو نحواً إنشائياً أحياناً، فينتهي إلى استنتاجات ذاتية الطابع ثم إنه لم يكن دقيقاً في طريقته في الاقتباس من الكتاب العبري المقدس كما في نقله المبتور لوصف بابل كما جاء في سفر إرميا. 
لعل أهم ما يتميز به كتاب الماجدي هو أنه يذهب مباشرة وعميقاً إلى موضوع تلك العلاقة التي يسميها «الينبوع الثيولوجي» للسرديات الدينية، فيضعها تحت نور البحث التحليلي مخصصاً كتابه برمّته لها ولتفاصيلها وجزئياتها وتداعياتها.
اعتمد الماجدي في تأليفه كتابه استراتيجية تأليفية شديدة الدقة والوضوح، وهذا ما يجعل الكتاب في متناول فهم القارئ الأكاديمي المتخصص وغير المتخصص، رغم تعقيدات الموضوع المدروس وغموض مراجعه الرافدينية، إضافة إلى المتعة الحقيقية التي يقدمها للقارئ الشغوف بالتاريخ والمثيولوجيا.
الفكرة الجوهرية الرئيسية التي ينهض عليها الكتاب، هي محاولة رصد وتفسير أوجه التشابه البالغ أحياناً حدَّ التطابق في التفاصيل بين ما قدمته الكتب الدينية اليهودية وخصوصاً التوراة وأسفارها الخمسة من سردية روائية ورؤيوية لعشرة من أنبياء بني إسرائيل لعصور ما قبل الطوفان وبين ما قدمته السردية السومرية السابقة لها بقرون عديدة والمدعمة بالأدلة الآثارية «الأركيولوجية» القاطعة من تفاصيل تتعلق بعشرة من الملوك السومريين للفترة السحيقة. وينال موضوع الخلق الأول للعالم وأبي البشر الأول «آدم التوراتي» المقابل لـ«ألوليم السومري» وموضوع الطوفان ذاته وبطله «نوح التوراتي» المقابل لـ«زيوسودرا السومري». 
الأنبياء «الآباء» التوراتيون العشرة الذين يؤثل لهم الباحث هم: آدم، شيث، أنوش، قينان، مهللئيل، يارد، أخنوخ، متوشالح، لامك ونوح. وبعد مقارنات وتحليلات معقدة ولكنها معروضة بشكل واضح ورصين، يضع الماجدي جدولاً بالملوك السومريين العشرة المقابلين لهم، وهم: ألوليم، ألكار، إينمن لو أنا، إينمن كال أنا، ديموزي سيبا، أنسيبازي أنا، إنمين دور أنا، أوبار توتو، شكور لام، وزيوسودرا الذي يحمل باللغة الأكدية في العصر البابلي اللاحق للسومري اسم «أتونبشتم» صانع الفُلك للنجاة من الطوفان والذي يقابل في الدور والصنيع نوح التوراتي. وفي موضع آخر من الكتاب، يناقش المؤلف مؤيداً وجهة نظر أخرى حول آدم التوراتي ويقول إنه هو نفسه «ديمو- زي» الإله المتحول إلى بشر ــ والكلمة تعني «الإنسان المرتفع أو العالي» ـ ملاحظاً القرب الصوتي بين لفظتي آدم وديمو. 
ينتظم الكتاب في ثلاثة أبواب، يضم الأول ثلاثة فصول حول كتب الديانة اليهودية وأسفارها. وهو باب مهم يقدم لوحة مبسطة لشبكة الكتب اليهودية المعقدة والمتداخلة. وفي الباب الثاني، يناقش المؤلف ويحلل على امتداد 12 فصلاً «حقيقة آباء وأنبياء ما قبل الطوفان» عارضاً سرديات 12 نبياً توراتياً هم موضوع المقارنة والمطابقة مع عشرة ملوك سومريين، بادئاً بآدم «الأب الأول»، ومنتهياً بآخر أنبياء ما قبل الطوفان نوح. وفي الباب الثالث والأخير وعنوانه «آلهة وملوك»، يضع الباحث خلاصة جهده واستنتاجاته في فصلين مهمين.

«آدم» هو المقابل لـ «ألوليم السومري» و«نوح» مقابل لـ«زيوسودرا السومري»

يقدّم كتاب الماجدي محاولة جدية وواعدة لملء الحلقة المفرغة التي تدور فيها الأبحاث التاريخية والتوراتية والإناسية «الانثروبولجية» وعلم الإلهيات «الثيولوجية» وعلم اجتماع الأديان حول حقيقة الفراغ الكبير واللاتارخانية التي تسم الرواية التوراتية المدونة سواء في نصوص الملك يوشيا (641 ق.م – 609 ق.م) قبل سقوط يهوذا، أو من قبل عزرا الكاتب (480 ق.م – 440 ق.م) العائد من بابل بمعية نحميا، حول ما ترويه عن عصور ما قبل تدوين التوراة نفسها، نزولاً إلى عصر ما قبل الطوفان، وعن السر والسبب الحقيقي الذي يجعل القصص التوراتي متطابقاً هذا التطابق المذهل مع القصص الرافديني الوثني والمؤكد بالأدلة الآثارية الملموسة، آخذاً في الاعتبار الأسبقية التأريخية للنص الرافديني على التوراتي بقرون عديدة. ولهذا سيشكل هذا الكتاب إضافة مهمة وجديدة لعلم أساطير نشوء الإنسان، الأنثروبوغونيا ( ANTHROPOGONY). 
صحيح أن إجابات الماجدي ليست مباشرة لأنها تنتمي إلى البحث المنهجي العلمي، وليس إلى الإنشاء المسبق المُحْتَكِم إلى الظنون، وصحيح أنها ليست الأولى في هذا الميدان ولكنها الأكثر دقة والأعمق تحليلاً وتنظيماً. في نهاية كتابه، يَعِدُ الماجدي قراءهُ بكتاب ثانٍ في هذا الباب، يرصد فيه آباء وأنبياء آخرين، توراتيين ورافدينيين، لعهود ما بعد الطوفان، ليستكمل بذلك ما بدأه في هذا الكتاب. إنه كتاب مهم وجدير بالقراءة العميقة والمنتجة لنقود خلاقة تفتح باب البحث على مصراعيه في هذا الميدان وعلى أرض حوادثه وسردياته الأصلية ذاتها في بلاد الرافدين. جدير بالذكر، أن الباحث الماجدي قدم للمكتبة العربية قبل عامين كتاباً مرجعياً ومهماً في بابه، عنوانه «علم الأديان… تاريخه مكوناته مناهجه أعلامه حاضره ومستقبله» وقد صدرت طبعته الثانية قبل أسابيع قليلة. 

*كاتب عراقي


Urshaleem-alQuds in Bronze Age: Name & Identity- by Alaa Allami



أورشليم القدس في العصر البرونزي الاسم والهويّة



أورشليم القدس في العصر البرونزي الاسم والهويّة
المدينة القديمة – القدس المحتلّة (من الويب)
يعتبر الوضع الحقيقي لما كانت عليه منطقة ومدينة أورشليم ــــ القدس في العصر البرونزي، والعهد الأول من العصر الحديدي، واحدة من أكثر قضايا التاريخ الفلسطيني أهمية وخصوصية وتعقيداً لدى الباحثين المتخصصين بالتاريخ القديم وعلم الآثار «الأركيولوجيا» والعلوم الأخرى القريبة منهما. وقد تأتّى ذلك من أن الرواية التوراتية أنشأت لنفسها ركائز تسلطية قوية، مبنية على مزاعم لا تأريخية حول دور العبرانيين، بني إسرائيل، اليهود ــــ على ما بين هذه الكلمات من غموض وفروق جوهرية في المضمون ــــ في هذه المدينة المقدسة اليوم لدى معتنقي الديانات الإبراهيمية الثلاث. وقد نجحت تلك الرواية الدينية التوراتية، خلال القرنين الماضيين، في أن تجعل من سرديتها نصاً تاريخياً رئيساً معترفاً به، ومعه جعلت التاريخ الفلسطيني العام هامشاً تابعاً ومكمّلاً، على العكس مما هو عليه واقع الحال، حيث تبقى السردية التوراتية هامشاً صغيراً في السردية الفلسطينية الألفية الأشمل.

وبالتالي، فقد نجحت ــــ السردية التوراتية ــــ في أن تسود، وتتحول إلى قناعة مهيمنة لأسباب عدة، منها قوة التضليل والتزوير الاستشراقي، وخصوصاً لدى اليهود والمسيحيين الصهاينة من البروتستانت إلى درجة بالغة الضلال والجهل، ومنها أيضاً تخبط وقلة كفاءة الخطاب التاريخي والإعلامي العربي والفلسطيني للأسف. لقد بلغت الفعالية التضليلية والتزويرية الصهيونية ذروتها مع الرئيس الأميركي الحالي دونالد ترامب، الذي لا يختلف كثيراً عن زملائه الرؤساء من حيث جهله المدقع بحقائق التاريخ القديم والحديث، والذي بادر إلى الاعتراف بأورشليم ــــ القدس عاصمة لدولة الكيان الصهيوني «إسرائيل» لأنها كما قال مدينة بناها اليهود وسكنوها! في حين أن التوراة نفسها لا تقول ذلك، بل تعترف في مواضع عديدة بأن المدينة يبوسية، بناها وسكنها اليبوسيون وقومهم الكنعانيون وهم من سمّوها بهذا الاسم، ولا علاقة تأسيسية لها بالعبرانيين أو بني إسرائيل القدماء شبه المنقرضين؛ لا لناحية تأسيسها ولا لجهة تسميتها أورسالم أو أورشاليم، أورشليم ولا من حيث ديانة سكانها وهويتهم الإثنية قديماً وحديثاً.

من المؤسف، على الجانب المقابل من المشهد، أن هناك من العرب المعاصرين، باحثين وكتّاباً ومواطنين عاديين، يجهلون حقيقة اسم «أورشليم»، يتحرجون من ذكره ويرفضون استعماله بمفرده أو إلى جانب اسم القدس المعاصر العربي، ظانين خطأً أن «أورشليم» اسم عبري أو يهودي أو إسرائيلي، وما هو كذلك، بل هو اسم كنعاني جزيري «سامي» أطلق على المدينة قبل ظهور العبرانيين في المشهد التاريخي الشرقي بأكثر من ألف عام، كما سيأتي بيان ذلك مفصلاً في عدة مواضع من هذه الدراسة. فأول ذكر للعبرانيين ــــ إذا افترضنا جدلاً صحة التفسير القائل بأنهم هم أنفسهم الخابيرو أو العابيرو ــــ قد ورد ذكرهم لأول مرة في التاريخ سنة 1369 ق.م، في إحدى رسائل تل العمارنة خلال هجومهم على شكيم، فإن أورشاليم القدس الأولى كانت قائمة خلال الألف الثالث ق.م.

إنَّ من الباعث على الأمل وجود بداية ليقظة في هذا المضمار في السنوات القليلة الماضية بين بعض الكتّاب والباحثين العرب عبّرت عنها أصوات عدة. من ذلك مثلاً ما كتبته منال زيدان ــــ من «مركز يافا للدراسات» ــــ تحت عنوان «أورشليم «القدس» اسم عربي كنعاني». ورغم تحفّظي على اعتبارها الكنعانيين عرباً كما تقول الصيغة الصحافية الشائعة، فالصحيح علمياً من الناحية الإثنية والأنثروبولوجية «الأناسية» هو أن الكنعانيين واليبوسيين والأموريين والعرب والأكديين جزيريون «ساميون»، ولكنني أتفق مع جوهر ما عَنَتْهُ الكاتبة من أن اسم «أورشليم» لا علاقة له بالعبرانيين أو الإسرائيليين القدماء، وبالتالي لا حرج أبداً من استعمال هذا الاسم الجزيري الكنعاني؛ بل الحرج هو من التردد في استعماله وتركه للإعلام والسردية الصهيونية غنيمة باردة تم التنازل عنها عربياً.

تدعم الكاتبة زيدان رأيها بحجج تاريخية منها أن «أقدم أثر لاسم أورشاليم، يحمل اسم مدينة أوروسالم إلى الفترة ما بين 2000 ق.م – 1900ق.م، وقد عثر على قطعة أثرية عام 1926م وعليها نقش أورشليم، ويظهر الاسم مرة أخرى في إحدى الرسائل التي تم اكتشافها ضمن مجموعة من الألواح عام 1887 في تل العمارنة في مصر الوسطى» («دنيا الوطن»، عدد 2017/05/11)، وكما ذكرنا، فهناك تاريخ أقدم من ذلك لنشوء أورشليم القدس الأولى باسمها الجزيري «السامي» هذا: أورشاليم.

باحثون وكتّاب ومواطنون عاديون يجهلون حقيقة اسم «أورشليم»، يرفضون استعماله ظانين خطأً أن «أورشليم» اسم عبري أو يهودي أو إسرائيلي

تؤكد الأركيولوجيا عبر دراسة طبقات الأرض هذا المعنى بخصوص القدس القديمة. ويعتقد الباحث العراقي خزعل الماجدي في كتابه المهم «تاريخ القدس القديم» أن بُناتَها الأوائل هم الأموريون، مستدلاً على ذلك من «بقايا الفخاريات المصبوغة وقواعد الأعمدة والسقوف؛ والتي عثر عليها في موقع القدس القديمة، وتعود الى الألف الثالث قبل الميلاد كما أكد باحثون؛ من بينهم شيلوح وباركر ومانكلستر» (ص 72 وما بعدها). وهذا يعني ــــ من وجهة نظر الماجدي ــــ أن القدس بُنيت مع بداية العصر البرونزي، أي قبل مجيء الكنعانيين واليبوسيين… وأنها، على الأرجح، كانت أمورية البُناة والهوية، قبل أن يصل اليبوسيون الى منطقة التلال الوسطى في فلسطين وبعدهم وصل الكنعانيون وأعادوا بناءها. أما أول إشارة إلى اسم المدينة بصيغة «روشاليموم» في أثر مادي، فقد وردت في نصوص اللعن التي تعود إلى عهد الفرعون سيزوستريس الثالث (1878 – 1842 ق.م)، كما يقتبس الماجدي عن كارين آرمسترونغ في كتابها «القدس مدينة واحدة، عقائد ثلاث». يُسهب الباحث الماجدي بخصوص اسم أورشليم، ويعرض لقرائه جدولاً مهماً عن تطوراته وتحولاته واشتقاقاته على الصفحة 92 من كتابه، ومنه نفهم أن اسم «أورشليم» مرَّ بعدة مراحل وهيئات لفظية، نذكر أهمها الآتي:

● أورشليم ــــ في آثار من مملكة إيبلا.

● أورسالم ــــ في ألواح أكدية من العراق القديم.

● يوروشاليم ــــ في نصوص الطهارة من مصر.

● أوشاميم، في نصوص اللعنات ــــ من مصر.

● أوشاليم ــــ مصر، أورساليمو ــــ أموري.

● شهر شلايم ــــ في ألواح أوغاريت.

إضافة الى أربعة أسماء أخرى، وجدت في رسائل تل العمارنة يُعَتقد أنها أطلقت على أورشليم القدس، رغم أنها بعيدة لفظاً عن أورشليم. ويخلُص الماجدي إلى أن «أغلب أسماء القدس في العصر البرونزي دارت حول «أورشليم»» (ص 92). ويستدرك مرجحاً أن «أقدم اسم معروف للمدينة، وقد يكون سابقاً على كل هذه الأسماء، هو اسم «منورتا» الذي يوحي باسم سامي آرامي يعني «الشمعة أو الضوء»…» ثم يعود الباحث ويرجح أن هذا الاسم ربما كان أمورياً وليس آرامياً بناءً على تحليلاته اللغوية التاريخية، ويمكننا أنْ نلحظ هنا القرب اللفظي الحروفي بين مفردة «منورتا» الآرامية التي تعني الشمعة أو الضوء وشقيقتها «منورة» العربية الحية المُحيلة الى المعنى ذاته. وكانت آرمسترونغ في كتابها «القدس مدينة واحدة، عقائد ثلاث» (ص 28)، قد رجّحت أن تكون ترجمة مفردة «يروشاليم» الحرفية هي «شاليم هو الذي وضع الأساس» وتضيف «ففي العالم القديم بالشرق الأدنى والبحر المتوسط، كان الناس يعتبرون أن الاستيطان والتخطيط من الأعمال الربانية»، أما شاليم فتعتقد أنه «هو نفسه الشمس الغاربة أو كوكب المساء».

في الإعلام الصهيوني

بعيداً عن رصانة البحث العلمي لدى المتخصصين، نجد أن الإعلام الصهيوني في دولة «إسرائيل»، قد ركز جهوده على عدد من خطوط الدفاع السطحي، وحاول القيام بعدة محاولات هجومية مضادة بائسة على صعيد نفي الصلة بين شعب فلسطين اليوم، سواء كانت الملايين التي ظلت مقيمة ومتشبثة بأرضها أو الأخرى المقتلعة منها والمهجَّرة إلى مخيمات اللجوء، وبين أسلاف هذا الشعب ومدينته أورشليم القدس، سواء كان هؤلاء الأسلاف القدماء كنعانيين أو «فلسطينيين» أو غيرهم من الأقوام الجزيرية السامية والبحرية التي عاشت واندمجت في فلسطين، طوال قرون عديدة، وصولاً الى الموجة الجزيرية «السامية» الأخيرة الشاملة بعد الفتح العربي الإسلامي قبل أكثر من أربعة عشر قرناً متواصلاً، والتي انتهت بإضفاء انسجام إثني كبير على الموجود الأنثروبولوجي والتشكّل الإثني الذي لم يسلم تماماً من تداعيات الحروب والغزوات والهجرات السابقة للفتح العربي الإسلامي في القرن السابع الهجري واللاحقة له.

إن هذا الحراك الأنثروبولوجي والإثني البطيء، والذي استغرق أكثر من أربعة عشر قرناً، لم يقتصر على فلسطين؛ بل حدث في جميع أقطار المشرق العربي شمال الجزيرة العربية، وخصوصاً في بلاد الرافدين وبلاد الشام؛ بل عبر سيناء نحو الشمال الأفريقي حتى ضفاف الأطلسي غرباً، وأعاد نسج الفَرْشَةِ الأنثروبولوجية والإثنية لشعوب المنطقة مجدداً، وبهذا القدر من العمق والتماسك أو ذاك.

ولعلّ من أكثر النصوص التي كتبها إعلاميون «إسرائيليون» إثارة للسخرية هو تلك المقالة العجيبة التي نشرها نداف شرغاي في صحيفة «إسرائيل اليوم» في 7 شباط (فبراير) 2014 تحت عنوان رنّان يقول «محاولة فلسطينية جديدة لتزوير التاريخ!»، يذكر فيها الكاتب عدداً من الأمثلة التي يحاول من خلالها نفي وجود أي صلة بين الفلسطينيين وأسلافهم الكنعانيين. ومن هذه الحالات ــــ الأدلة المضحكة يطرح شرغاي الآتي «خذوا على سبيل المثال السيدة سلمى فيومي من سكان كفر قاسم، التي عرضت بفخر كبير طعام «الكُشري» وبيّنت الطاهية من كفر قاسم قائلة: «جاءت عائلتي من مصر من الفيوم، وأنا سلمى الفيومي جئت من الفيوم».

أما المثال الثاني الذي يعرضه شرغاي فهو بخصوص السيد فتحي حماد وزير الداخلية في حكومة حماس في غزة، الذي طلب مساعدة مصرية أثناء العدوان الصهيوني العسكري الدموي على قطاع غزة (آذار 2012)، وقال كما يروي شرغاي إن «نصف عائلتي من جهة شخصية من مصر. فأين رحمتكم؟ وإن أكثر من ثلاثين عائلة في قطاع غزة تسمى المصري وإن نصف الفلسطينيين هم مصريون ونصفهم الآخر سعوديون». تصوروا هذا الاكتشاف العجيب: وجود سيدة فلسطينية من أصول مصرية وثلاثين عائلة من الأصول ذاتها في قطاع غزة الذي يقترب عدد سكانه من مليوني نسمة! أما العبارة التي ينسبها شرغاي إلى فتحي حماد من أن نصف الفلسطينيين مصريون والنصف الآخر سعوديون فهي أكثر سطحية وتناقضاً من غيرها، بل إن الجزء الأول من كلامه عن وجود ثلاثين عائلة غزية من أصول مصرية تكشف كذبها وتناقضها مع حكاية نصف الفلسطينيين من أصول مصرية.

ولكنَّ مقالات «إسرائيلية» من هذا النوع، وهي كثيرة كما يبدو، ولها قراؤها ممن يؤرقهم أصلهم العرقي المثير للجدل، ومبررات وجودهم على أرض شعب آخر بالقوة والعنف، تكشف لنا عن مستوى ضحالة الإعلام «الإسرائيلي» وتأزّمه حين يناقش أموراً علمية تتعلق بالتاريخ أو أنثروبولوجيا أو المورثات «الجينات»، والتي تحظر إسرائيل دراستها كما يخبرنا عالم المورثات الروسي أناتولي كليوسوف.

وبالمناسبة، فالعلم الأخير وهو من العلوم التجريبية التي لا تقبل الخطأ إلا نسبة تكاد لا تذكر، أثبت، وعلى أيدي باحثين أجانب من بينهم باحث «إسرائيلي» مشهور هو إران حايك، أن اليهود الأشكناز، والذين يشكلون قرابة 90% من يهود العالم اليوم لا ينتمون إلى الجينات ذاتها التي كان يحملها بنو إسرائيل واليهود العبرانيون في العصور القديمة. فيما عالم جينات روسي آخر هو البروفسور أناتولي كليوسوف أكّد خلال برنامج تلفزيوني (برنامج «رحلة في الذاكرة» بثته قناة «روسيا اليوم» بتاريخ 5 أيلول/ سبتمبر 2018)، أن الجين الذي يسميه بعض الباحثين الصهاينة «الجين الكوهيني» ويعتبرونه جيناً خاصاً باليهود، لا علاقة مباشرة له باليهود؛ بل هو جين عربي وجد عند العرب قبل اليهود بأربعين ألف سنة. وكنا قد توقفنا عند هذا الموضوع في دراسة بجزءين نشرت في «الأخبار» (عدد 4 تشرين الأول 2018).

بالعودة إلى هوية الأقوام القديمة في فلسطين الوسطى، سجل باحثون مرموقون كُثر ما مفاده أن العلاقة بين أحد هؤلاء الأقوام على اختلاف تسمياتهم: العابيرو والخابيرو والساشو، بنو إسرائيل، اليهود، الذين لا يزال الغموض يلف اسمهم وهويتهم وموطنهم الأصلي وبين هذه المدينة لا تتعدى علاقة مهاجرين متسللين أو غزاة في إقليمٍ شكَّلَ الغزو والهجرات ثيمتين رئيستين في كل تاريخه القديم. وقد سيطرت قبائل العابيرو على المدينة سكانياً وبشكل سلمي لقرنين أو ثلاثة في العصر الحديدي وليس في هذا العصر البرونزي، وسنتوقف عند هذه الحيثية لاحقاً بشيء من التفصيل. ثم ما لبثت المدينة وبلاد فلسطين كلها أن أصبحت متقلبة التبعية وبؤرة صراع إقليمي شرس بسبب موقعها الجغراسياسي، وكونها سُرَّةً تتلاقى فيها عوالم أفريقيا وآسيا وأوروبا، وعتلة العالم القديم المتنازَع عليها بين القوى الدولية الكبرى آنذاك كمصر الفرعونية وممالك وإمبراطوريات بلاد الرافدين وبلاد فارس والمقدونيين؛ فالرومان وصولاً الى الفتح العربي في القرن السابع الميلادي «سنة 637 م».

لقد كان الفتح العربي الإسلامي الأخير بمثابة إنهاء وتبديد لحالة الصراعات القديمة وإعادة تأسيس عميقة لهوية فلسطين الجزيرية السامية الأم، ولكن بنسختها العربية الطالعة في المشرق العربي، والمندمجة مع بقايا الفلسطينيين الجزيريين الساميين فيها من كنعانيين وغيرهم. أي أن الفتح العربي في القرن السابع الميلادي كان التجلي الجزيري «الجديد والأحدث» للمظاهر الأنثروبولوجية والإثنية الجزيرية الأقدم منه، والتي سبقته كالتجلي الأموري واليبوسي والكنعاني المندمج بشعوب الفلسطة والتكر البحرية، وهو التأكيد الأنثروبولوجي العملي والتاريخي لهوية فلسطين الجزيرية السامية الكنعانية لآلاف السنوات؛ ومن ثمَّ شقيقتها الهوية العربية الوارثة والجامعة للهوية الجزيرية الكنعانية منذ أكثر من ألف وأربعمئة سنة.

ومع تصاعد الترويج الصهيوني في أوروبا الغربية للرواية والرؤية التوراتيتين، والذي بدأ به الصهاينة البروتستانت قبل الصهاينة اليهود خلال القرنين الماضيين وقبلهما بكثير، وهذا ما يرصده ويوثقه الكاتب اليهودي المنصف إيلان بابيه في كتابه «عشر خرافات حول إسرائيل»، بدأت فؤوس علم الآثار «الأركيولوجيا» عملها الفعال والمنهجي العلمي في القرنين الماضيين، ومع ضربات تلك الفؤوس انهارت أجزاء كبيرة من صخور وجلاميد أسس الرواية التوراتية وتحولت الى رماد، وخصوصاً أجزاءها المتعلقة بالعصر البرونزي وحتى بدايات العصر الحديدي؛ وسنلقي نظرة فاحصة وتحليلية على حيثيات الموضوع في مناسبة قريبة مقبلة.

*كاتب عراقي

**هذه المقالة جزء من دراسة طويلة حول أورشليم القدس في العصر البرونزي ستصدر لاحقاً في كتاب «نقد الجغرافيا التوراتية ودراسات أخرى».


Haruki Murakami: “Mordet på Kommandanten”

It is a pleasure reading Murakami’s two volumes novel: “Mordet på Kommandanten”. Although themes of violence, sex, fantasy, curiosity, adventures and wars are dominant in many of his novels; nevertheless, his style oblige you to continue discovering the most detailed descriptions, in a Balzacian way, that you never get bored. 

Commemoration of the 71th anniversary of al_Nakba

12.5 million Palestinains world wide are called to stop for 71 seconds today to remember one of the most atrocities and ethnic cleansing criminality that was committed in 1948 against the original people of Palestine, depriving 2/3 of the people from their homes and lands, sending them to the four corners of the world, and denying them their absolute right to return to their homes of origin. Bernadote, who was behind the 194 international resolution was shot dead, and nowadays, 71 years after, efforts are evident from the zionists and their supporters, that they want to burry these rights under the continued theft of land and building illegal settelements, and producing apartheid laws, raising one group of people over others, in what they call the new national law. When the apartheid laws are dashed to the rubbles of history in South Africa since 1994, others try to implement it nowadays in historic Palestine.

132 years of Algerian colonisation ended; centuries of colonisation in Congo,where a king once owned the whole country as a personal property, killing millions of people as consequence; Vietnam, China, Cuba,  only to mention few examples: all these colonial powers ended in the rubbles of history. Palestine is not an exception. The right of return and restitution is crystal clear, although 71 years since adopted by the general assembly, 194 rsolution is not for negotiations; it is for implementation. POINT.

My village, Lubya, as well as others of the 601 villages partially or totally demolished, will stand as a witness to those crimes committed against civilian and indigenous  people as a result of the complexity of the EuroCentric policies and sense of guilt because of the crimes comitted against a group of people, the Jews of Europe. Out struggle in Palestine was never, and will never be based on  religious claims: it is based on the human rights of people for self determination and freedom from colonial powers that started with Balfour declaration and culminated now to what is names as the Deal of the Century. 

I will resend the film: “Ancestors land” again as a documentary that confirms the solid Will, that we will not forget; we will insist to struggle to achieve justice according to international laws and human rights charter; for the right of return and restitution, and for the freedom of Palestinian People.

For more  documentary films  see: 

Comment on ELisabeth M. Jensen´s book: At Se Med Egne Øjne-Mit KVINFO



Elisabeth was and still a pioneer and full of vision in her approach towards one of the most explosive and actuel subject in our modern times: gender equality and womens’ rights; at all political, social, cultural and historical levels. Working with her and under her visionary leadership with Arab women organisations, we succeeded to convene  250 women and few men from 11 arabic countries, gathered in four international conferences in Beirut, Amman, Cairo and Ålborg:with main themes as:  Women in Politics; Women  in Buisness, Women legal status and Women in Research. It was a huge step where all participants have seen and demonstrated that the obstacles of Womens’ Rights are the same, whether in Europe, Africa or the Arab countries: there is difference only in degree , but not in substance. In an ira of naive populism worldwide, the stuggle is relevant yesterday, today and tomorrow.

Also thousands of migrant women, through mentornetwork where I had the opporunity to lead a team in Tingbjerg, have had the opprtunity to integrate and learn to bridge the gap and establish their personal successful life in Denmark against all the propoganda of hijab and Niqab and hetz against emigrant women, especailly targeted those who belong to Islamic faith.

Although I believe in the power of institutions; nevertheless I may say clearly: without the energy, engagement and vision of Elisabeth, these successful initiatives would never have had the opportunity to succeed. 

Thanks Elisabeth  


An article on the 100th anniversary of Palestine Archeological institution: Hamdan Taha

Hamdan. As ususal, you are a pioneer in establishing and preserving this huge and necessary job towards the cultural heritage and museums in Palestine. An excellent and inclusive perception to our past history that trancends the religious and ethnic classifications of our past material culture and historicity. I do hope that one will take the opportunity to translate the article to english, because Hamdan, not only a leading modern archeologist, but was the head of a team who straggeled hard to establish tens of archeological sites and museums and trained many new archeologists in the small part of Palestine where it was possible and permissable. All was was done since 1994 was started from zero, as far as I know.

One note to mention: although Hamdan mentioned that more than 500 villages and localities were demolished, before and after 1948, it was documented now, by Zochorot researchers and others that 601 villages and localioties were demolished. A map on Zochorot homepage is available with all the names, if needed. Khalidi, Sharif Kanaani, Abu Sitta, Nur Masalha, only to mention a few,  have done a lot in this regard. More research is needed to document and preserve what happened in the last century to our modern material culture by trying to eraze the physical body of the villages,, as well as the old past heritage of Palestine, that was and still under huge and constant acedemic falisifications…Few days ago, an Israeli researcher presented a view of what happened in Kufur Kanna in 48, and how vivid and authentic the Palestinian voices who still remember what happened and why the military forces who attacked kufur kanna did not  succeed in occupying the village. Archival materials, especially form the other side are not holy, although necesary to look at. The presented their views and not what took place really.  
Thanks Hamdan

Comment on An Image of Africa

Chinua Achebe’s (1930-2013) critique and accusations of Joseph Conrad’s novella “Heart of Darkness” as a racistic novella is interesting. Although my analysis of this novella concluded that Heart of Darkness was Europe then, nevertheless I agree with Achebe’s analysis about the invisibility of the “negros” and their characterization in the novella. This is a great artistic masterpience; nevertheless, occupied people, whether in Nigeria then, or Palestine today, has absolute right to reevaluate all art or literary work written about them, seen through their authentic views; that is more credible and sincere than the other’s views: especially when they have a black colonial past.

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Friday 5 May 2018- Lecture in KBH Hus on “Oral History Methodologies”

Dr. Mahmoud Issa will give more perspectives on the methodology of oral history with a case study with the Diaspora Lubyans, originally from a now demolished Palestinian village in north Galilee.

LIVING MEMORIES is a free seminar and workshop on the political participation of women in Palestine, the on-going Gaza March and the methodology of oral history.

Writing history is a subjective business. The writing of women’s history even more so, for its exclusion of women from the historical profession over many years. For the past 30 years, Dr. Faiha Abdulhadi has been righting (and writing) wrongs, creating space for women’s histories in what can often seem to be fixed landscape.

During the seminar and workshop, you will be lead by Dr. Abdulhadi through the testimonies of Palestinian women, who fled and fought during the 1948 Nakba and the Six-Day War of 1967. The event will explore new angles on women’s roles in historical Palestinian struggles. Whereas much has been written about women as victims of war, fleeing from conflict, Dr. Abdulhadi’s research has uncovered numerous testimonies, shedding light on women as soldiers, rebels and members of the resistance in their own right.

Contrary to the dominant narrative which has discounted women’s presence on the battlefield and in political life, this seminar will focus on how academics can use Dr. Abdulhadi’s methodologies to uncover new, untold, and previously neglected histories, in Palestine as well as elsewhere.

Dr. Faiha Abdulhadi is the founder and director of the الرواة للدراسات والأبحاث – Al Rowat for Studies & Research and leads the 1948 Displacement Project. She is an author, poet, activist and lecturer, currently living in Ramallah.

Also at the seminar you will meet

Prof. Michelle Pace exploring how memories travel from those who experienced the tragic events of the Nakba to their grandchildren and how they are recounted during the Great March of 2018.

The Palestinian writer and former journalist at, Muhammad Shehada expands on these themes by analysing the transformation of Palestinian resistance tactics and shift towards non-violence during the Gaza March

Dr. Mahmoud Issa will give more perspectives on the methodology of oral history with a case study with the Diaspora Lubyans, originally from a now demolished Palestinian village in north Galilee.

This event is FREE but to secure your spot, you must sign up via the Billetto link above!

We look forward to welcoming her, and you, to Talk Town 2018!


Programme details to come – stay up-to-date by clicking ‘attending’ here on Facebook.


This event is organised in collaboration with The Danish House in Palestine DAPAWO and the Palestine History & Heritage Project.

The Danish House in Palestine (DHIP) is a non-profit, non-governmental, politically independent organization. We facilitate dialogue and cultural exchanges between Palestinians Danes. Our aim is to strengthen bilateral relations and encourage mutual respect and understanding between Denmark and Palestine.

DAPAWO: Danish Palestinian Women Organization-DAPAWO blev dannet i marts 2013 af en gruppe danske og herboende palæstinensiske kvinder, som en tværpolitisk og uafhængig forening. DAPAWOs formål er at informere om palæstinensiske kvinders forhold i Danmark og i Palæstina, og at støtte projekter til gavn for kvinder i Palæstina.

PHHP: Working under the Faculty of Theology at the University of Copenhagen, the Palestine History & Heritage Project is an international and interdisciplinary research project spanning five countries and 8 research centres. Its focus is the critical revision of Palestine’s history in order to provide the basis for the development of textbooks and teachers’ manuals for the Palestine Authority’s school system.


TALK TOWN – Talking gender, equality & feminism
Talk Town 2018 finder sted 3.-5. maj 2018 i Huset-KBH!
Festivalen er en samtaleby om køn, ligestilling og feminisme; et forum for dialog på tværs af faglig og personlig erfaring; et sted for nysgerrighed, netværksdannelse og dialog. Talk Town er talks, paneldebatter og workshops, krydret med sociale og kunstneriske events som koncerter, fællesspisninger og performances.

Festivalen er gratis og åben for alle – vi ses!!!

Læs mere på og følg med på Instagram: @talktown

Information om tilgængelighed for de forskellige scener findes på
Hvis du har nogle specielle ønsker, der kan gøre din oplevelse bedre i forhold til tilgængelighed, så skriv en besked til, og vi vil prøve at imødekomme det.

Arrangementet gennemføres med støtte fra Udenrigsministeriets oplysningspulje

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رواية “رسالة من طبريا موسم الثلج الحار” لمحمود عيسى: فردوس الحياة المفقودة…..Review of my novel: (Message from Tabariyya; Season of Warm Snow)

رواية “رسالة من طبريا موسم الثلج الحار” لمحمود عيسى: فردوس الحياة المفقودة…..Review of my novel: (Message from Tabariyya; Season of Warm Snow)   2013/04/17
Review of my novel: (Message from Tabariyya; Season of Warm Snow)—by Salim Najjar)…in Qabaqaosayn.
الصفحة الرئيسية ›
رواية “رسالة من طبريا موسم الثلج الحار” لمحمود عيسى: فردوس الحياة المفقودة
نشره webmaster في 04/17/2013

• عرض كتاب

سليم النجار*

” ليس صمت الحياة، هنا، هو الذي يقول الحقيقة. يقولها صمت الموت.
أيتها الحياة… لا يموت إلاّ الموت.” أدونيس.

شغلني قبل هذه الكلمات على نحو خاص تقديم الروائي محمود عيسى، والحال أن الكلام عن الكلام صعب.
كيف يمكن تقديم روائي نهل من نهر الرواية، وارتوى اللغة من بحر العذاب الفلسطيني؟…
قد يكون الأمر عسراً حين يتراهن التقديم مع التمثيل في مثيراته المهاجرة بين الثوابت الفلسطينية السياسية والتحولات الاجتماعية التي مَرّ بها الشعب الفلسطيني منذ نكبة عام 1948، وحتى كتابة رواية “رسالة من طبريا… “موسم الثلج الحار” للروائي د. محمود عيسى، الصادرة حديثاً عن “مركز صخر حبش للدراسات والتوثيق” في رام الله.
إن الحيز الفضائي في تكوينات عيسى تتعدد فيه الوحدات الروائية ،كالفراغ والنص وصورة الكتلة الاجتماعية، ومن هنا تتأتى إشكالية البحث في هذه العناصر الروائية لتفكيك وحداتها الرامزة للوصول إلى المدلول الأكثر عمقاً، والمتصل بالدلالة الفنية.
هذا التعالق الروائي بين العناصر التكوينية؛ تشكل وفق نظام تركيبي جامع لأشكال لغوية روائية، تتجدد حسب الوحدة الروائية، والتي اتخذت طابعاً إشكالياً تشاكلت بنيتها اللغوية مع البنية الروائية للغة. لغة تتراصف هياكلها للوحدات الروائية، تتكاثف، تتداخل. لتولد نسيجاً إيقاعياً بصرياً منسجماً تتناصف أنظمته الروائية بين الكتابي والمضمون.
عرض محمود عيسى نصه الروائي بمثل هذه الفقرة: [لم أستطع أن أتمالك أعصابي أمام ليلى، وقد كان للحظات يوصيني بها قبل أن يفارق الحياة من حلة رشاش 500 اخترقت صدره، وهو عائد بعد أن استطاع أن يدمر آليتين حضرتا إلى المستعمرة لتطويق مجموعة الاقتحام ، لقد كان اقتراحه أن تتم حفلة العيد في الداخل ووافقنا جميعاً على الفكرة يا أخ فسفوري”( ) ص59.
هذا التعالق الروائي يدل على طبيعة العلاقة التجاوزية بين الرواية والمضمون. فكلاهما يتحكّم في هيكلة وصياغة الحيز الفضائي الروائي، وفق اتزان بصري بالرغم من اختلاف المدركات الحسية للكتل الروائية المتناصّة. هذا التأليف التركيبي بين الهياكل الروائية، والوحدات اللغوية في النص دعّم الحركية البصرية في فضاء الرواية.
بذلك يتعامل محمود عيسى مع الموت كمكّون مهيكل للفضاء الروائي. ولعل ما قام به من تخيير بنيوي في مستوى تأطير التكوين يندرج ضمن إجرائية حديثة خالف بها المتعارف عليها في بناء الرواية الحديثة.
فلم يعد الإطار مجرد برواز لغوي للتكوين، بل غدا مساهماً في دعم توازن التركيبة، مهيكلاً للفضاء الروائي بعد أن كان دوره مقتصراً على إحاطة الكتلة الروائية وحصرها في حيز مغلق.
إن القضايا الإشكالية المطروحة في الرواية، وجدت الاهتمام الكافي (أو القراءات المقنعة) من قبل محمود عيسى في روايته، جعلته يقدم رؤيته الروائية على هذا النحو:
[ “يا شيخ كم مرة الواحد بيموت. عمر سيموت كلها تكلم عن دوريته العتيدة، ألم يخبرك كيف حاولوا القبض عليه بالبيارة؟.. هاهاها. مسكين يا عمر، كان شفناك على التلفزيون وصرت بطل مين داري فيك الآن! مرمي بغرفة بلا سقف ولا باب – قوموا انهضوا؛ قاعدين زي النساك في الغرفة، قوموا شوفوا الصبايا، ودعوهن، غداً صوركم رح تتعلق عالحيطان، على الأقل بتلاقي حدا يزعل عليك غير أمك وأبوك، قوموا ودعوا” ص 76،77.
وما انزياح الإطار الروائي إلى الداخل، إلا دليل على التخصيب الاجتماعي لتقسيم الفضاء الروائي إلى مساحات هندسية اجتماعية مهيكلة بالتناسب.. والتناسب هنا هورصد العلاقات الاجتماعية وتأليف الوحدات الروائية وارتباط الوحدات، ليمتد الإطار الروائي إلى الفضاء الداخلي. وعليه فإن تخصيب عيسى للإطار باعتباره مكوّناً روائياً، أكسبه وجوداً هندسياً اجتماعياً نوعياً من خلال التكوين المهيكل لهذه الوحدة الروائية باعتبارها، متمّما إنسانياً مقفلا لنظام التكوين الروائي. وبذلك يعيد عيسى دلالة الإطار في اللوحة الروائية الحديثة. إذ بتكوين البنية الروائية تتجادل اللغة الروائية والإطار والشكل بإتباع أسلوب إنساني.
هنا تجدد الإشارة إلى أن زج الفضاء المكاني، إلى جانب العلاقات الإنسانية أعلنت صراحة، في الرواية، وبعقل وجداني انفعالي، هذا ما رصده عيسى على النحو التالي: [ بدك تطول بالك يا عم- ايه يا دينا، غيرك بيموت وأنت خزات العين عنك بكامل صحتك، شو صابر عليك؟].
لكن الفسفوري كان غائباً عن العتمة والحوار الدائر، إنه يحيا في غيبوبة رائعة تسرى في خلايا جسمه كاملة، لقد امتدت الأيدي بطريقة عفويةً وتلامست أطراف الأصابع وتشابكت أصابع اليد الواحدة، حاول رفعها لكن اليد قومت، رفعها مرة ثانية وقبلها.
– فسفوري؛ القصف هدأ، استعد حتى نخرج.
– ارتخت أعصابه ولكن يديها ما زالت تمسك بيده بقوة وعندما تحرك قليلاً، أدركت أنه المقصود بالنداء.
شددت على اليد مرة أخرى ورفعتها بهدوء إلى شفتيها وقبلتها بسرعة، وبقيت هكذا وخصوصهاً أن اليد أنت في زاوية مظلمة من الصعب أن ترى من خلالها. ص195،196
هذه التنقيحات المفاهيمة الموصولة بين الحركات الدرامية واصلت تجلياتها التكوينية إلى تركيب الحيز الفضائي الروائي بين التأليف اللغوي، وصولاً إلى التكوين التجريدي الاحتماعي الذي تتذوب فيه أشكال القيم وتنصهر فيه الأجساد، والتي تتحول إلى أشكال هندسية، تم تكوينها بتطويع اللغة الروائية في صور درامية أساسها الأشكال الهندسية المتماسة والمتجاورة، واللغة الدرامية المنفعلة والمتشابكة والمعبرة عن تلك الأشكال، وبتناظم بصري يقسم الحيز إلى بنى حسية من حيث شكلها الهندسي والتي تمثلت بالأساس في هيئة المعاناة الفلسطينية الموشحة بالدهشة والغرابة.
لقد منح محمود عيسى منجزه الروائي البصري خصائص وثيمات فلسطينية، جعلته يتمايز عن التصنيف؛ ليس على التشكيل الروائي الفلسطيني فحسب وإنما على التشكيل الروائي العربي.
ولعل هذه التحديدات اللغوية الروائية تؤكد مشروعية ربط النسيج باللوحة الروائية. مفهوم اقتبسه الروائي من اللغة المحكية ، وحركات اللفظ ليشاكله بصناعة اللفظ المنسوب بالترويسة والحروف المنطوقة باللهجة الفلسطينية الصائتة. طرح أسسّ به عيسى لميلاد كيان روائي اجتماعي فلسطيني، يجمع بين جماليات اللهجة المحكية وأدبيات الروائي ضمن رؤية جمالية تهدف إلى استثمار كل ممكنات صور اللغة المحكية وتركيبها اجتماعياً في بنية بصرية، حيث تبدو اللغة المحكية فعلاً ومفعلاً، جذرّ به مادية الكتابة وجدليتها كجمالية روائية.
فإذا مددنا نظرنا صوب مادة الكتابة الروائية يتضح لنا أن طريقة عيسى الروائي، في تشكيل مادته، تشبه طريقة الشاعر على أساس أن كليهما يهدف إلى إحداث أقصى قدر من التناسب والتآلف والتشاكل والتناسق في صياغة مادته. الشاعر وما تقتضيه الصورة الشعرية من سبك للعبارة وبلاغة وفق تناسب لفظي بين الحروف والكلمات، وعيسى عن طريق ما أحدثه من تناسب وتآلف بين الصورة والكلمات، ليشاكل المعنى بالمبنى وذلك بمداعبته للكلمات ومضامينها وتفكيكها وإعادة صياغتها في بنية درامية قوامها التأليف والتناسخ، وتغدو الصورة اللفظية فصلاً بينهما. ومثل هذا الطرح الفني يستمد شرعيته التشكيلية من السياق الخلدوني ومثلما يقول: ” في الكتابة انتقالاً من الحروف الخطية إلى الكلمات اللفظية في الخيال. ومن الكلمات اللفظية في الخيال إلى المعاني التي في النفس، فهو ينتقل أبداً من دليل إلى دليل، من الأدلة إلى المدلولات”مقدمة ابن خلدون ص 498
لتبدو شعرية القصيدة نوعاً من التشكيل المتحرر من الضوابط البلاغية، وبذلك يتوافق إبداع عيسى الروائي مع جماليات الكتابة. وهو النص وقد أخرجه المؤلف من شاعرية المقاربات الذهنية، ليمنحه متعة جمالية قوامها الشعرية البصرية.، والتي تفوّض تصور المصطلح في اقتصاره على الشعر ليمنحه شرعية التجنيس الفني .
نجد هذا التوجه في نص عيسى الذي حاول فيه بناء هيكلية اجتماعية تشير إلى الدلالة الفنية عبر مشاكله بصرية مدروسة تركيبة وتكويناً.
[ كان الثلج يزداد تراكماً ويتراقص في السماء ويتساقط كما تشاء الرياح الهادئة البرد يتسرب إلى كل أطرافه وهو يقود رجليه باتجاه دفء لم يعهده بعد…ٍ] ص 201
إنها مقاربة جمالية يتراسل فيهاالمنحوت اللغوي من أسلوب الجناس إلى الترصيع الصوري عبر مناصر الطبيعية، ذلك أنه أعطى هيكلاً جمالياً حديثاً للحالة الاجتماعية من خلال البنية الصورية التي وسعت مثيراته اللغوية الروائية، فكانت بذلك نظيراً للبنية الاجتماعية التي ميزت التجربة النضالية الفلسطينية.
لقد نوّع عيسى في اختياراته النصية تصميماً وتطويراً، فكرة وكتابة، ذلك أن نشوءها اقترن بمعادلة اجتماعية قوامها تصوير حركات المقاتلين الفلسطينيين والذين يتحركون على غير علم منا ومنه على حد سواء. لذا كانت خاتمة الرواية على الشكل التالي: [ لقد نسيت المشي والركض وعدت تحبو كالأطفال الغد، ولن تجرؤ على الاقتراب من السلالم العالية، لأنها تطيح بك، تلقيك فريسة الزغاريد والميجنا
ص 242.
محمود عيسى لا يمثل فن الروائي الفلسطيني بل الثقافة القيمة في الكتابة. كتابة يُنسج فيها المعنى فكرياً بخامات لغوية، حيث تبدو الكلمات كأنها فيض لنسيج الفكر الروائي، وكأن عيسى يخطها بالقلم، ثم يعيد نسجها باليد.

* أديب من الأردن.

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جميع الحقوق محفوظة لصحيفة قاب قوسين 2012 – 2010
تصميم وتطوير Sync Jo


Im Rasmi from Lubya Village, interviewed, after 70 years in Exile

Link to the interview:

Im Rasmi, interviewed in her refugee camp in Baalbeck. after 70 years in obligatory exile from her village Lubya: “We will Return, We will not forget our village. If not me, one of my sons and daughters or grand sons and daughters will return”.

My article on Oral History- Forthcoming in a new book soon


Issa.Oral History with bibl. final.rev. 29nov.

                                                                                          Oral History’s Credibility, Role and Functionality: From the Arab Islamic Tradition to Modern Historiography

Mahmoud Issa          



A lot of controversy and debate continue around the credibility and validity of oral tradition and oral history as a scientific discipline.  In the following article, I will try to present the necessity, validity,  richness , and the new knowledge of the oral qualitative interviews which I conducted with Diaspora Lubyans, from the  demolished Palestinian village–in north Galilee, dispersed in fourteen different countries around the world. The interviews reveal the richness of the cultural remains – “les lieux de mémoire”-  of Lubya, and the vitality and vividness of its memory, even seven decades after the Nakba of 1948.  My approach is based on both “Eastern” and “Western”  oral traditions: Steinar Kvale’s “qualitative research interviewing”, Jan Vansina’s work on African “oral tradition as history”, the monumental work of “the collective memory” of Maurice Halbhwachs and Pierre Nora’s  apprehension of “history” and “landscape” as “les lieux de mémoire”.  All these “modern” European disciplines, had their cultural roots in Antique Ages, in Mesopotamia, and Greece, and later in Arab-Islamic culture:  Gilgamesh epic, Herodotus “Histories”, the pre-Islamic oral poetry, named “al-Mu’allaqaat”, and the Islamic scholar Imam al-Bukhari and his methodology of verifying the liability and credibility of the prophet’s words and deeds, collected through oral testimonies in the Hadith. Oral tradition and oral history was and still a main battle field for the impoverished, the marginal, the oppressed and the colonized. History is mainly made by those people, and their voices, whether collective or private, should be heard and registered for the coming generations.


One of the main reasons for choosing this topic on oral history is the ongoing debate about the credibility and sustainability of this methodology as a scientific approach to research interviewing, and to document the history of individuals, whether concerned with past events and reminiscences or with the present.  A number of classical historians reject from the outset an oral approach to the discipline of history. They argue that there are no specific theoretical rules for dealing with the oral account in contrast to a historiography, which entails a strict and well-disciplined set of formulae, particularly when dealing with written archival materials and documents collected by different state authorities and institutions over centuries.


My interest in oral history arose almost two decades ago when I began to investigate the history of the Palestinian village of Lubya,[1] a village, which was one of the 601[2] demolished in 1948, as has been documented by researchers from Zochrot.[3] To my astonishment, I could only find two articles from this period, written by Yousef al Youssef[4] in the Lebanese weekly newspaper: al-Hurriyya which specifically dealt with Lubya, plus a few scattered papers and a single older booklet, written by Ibrahim al- Shihabi, who generously gave me the only copy he had at the time (Al-Shihabi 1994 and 1998). In addition, there was also a one and half page on the village’s history in Al-Khalidi’s All that Remains (Al-Khalidi 1992: 526-527).


Qualitative Research Interviews

In the late nineties, I attended a course in “interviewing as a research tool” at Århus University, with the late Steiner Kvale[5]. Kvale had succeeded in establishing “research interviewing” as a discipline, which fully adheres to the conditions and demands of scientific methodology, especially if one defines the main goals of the research as acquiring new knowledge and modes of understanding society. “Qualitative research involves alternative conceptions of social knowledge, of meaning, reality and truth in social science research”, as Kvale wrote in his introduction to qualitative research interviewing (Kvale 1994: 17). “Research Interview is defined, thus as “an interview, which proposes to obtain accurate descriptions of the lived world of the interviewee in respect to interpreting the meaning of the described phenomena” (Kvale 1994: 3). A series of technical steps and methods are necessary from the very beginning of the research.[6] Adopting one of two contrasting metaphors of the interviewer: as “a miner”, who “unearths valuable metal, seeks objective facts to be quantified”, much as one “seeks nuggets of essential meaning”, without the subject’s interference: accumulating “quantitative data” and “objective facts.” This is totally different from the “metaphor of a traveler”, which describes an interviewer as one who understands his journey; that is, the interview, as a combined and rich tale to be told later by one who explores “the many domains of the country as an unknown territory”. Here, the traveler seeks his own questions, following the old Greek method of “a route, which leads to a goal”, through conversation with the people concerned: “wandering together with them” in accord with “the original Latin meaning of conversation”. The first “metaphor of the miner” brings the interview into the vicinity of human engineering, confirming the modern concept of social sciences of knowledge as given. The second, “traveler metaphor”, brings the interview “into the vicinity of humanities and arts”, confirming the postmodern constructive understanding that involves “a conversational approach to social research” as Kvale has claimed (Kvale1994: 2-3). In my research, I have chosen a methodology, which adheres to the “metaphor of the traveler”, with all of the implications, richness and variations that have produced new knowledge and have provoked new reflections about social issues, in following an interview methodology-which I have employed intensively in reconstructing the social life story of the demolished village of Lubya.


First Physical Encounter             

After my first visit to the ruins of our village with my parents in 1994 and after I had heard the story of the village from my father, reflecting on his understanding of the village, after half a century of forced exile, I was faced with a considerable lack of substantial material for the history of Lubya, in spite of the fact that Lubya had been the largest village in the district of Tiberias and the second largest village in the Galilee, after Safforiya. The constant questioning from others “where do you come from”, convinced me, both theoretically and empirically to start another long journey[7] of discovering and uncovering the hidden stories of this tiny piece of suppressed and marginalized modern historiography, mainly through oral history methodology and qualitative research interviews. This method is totally different than other kinds of professional interviews such as journalistic, philosophic or therapeutic interviews[8]. It entails different goals and structures of questioning and interacting through conversations, and a production of a different kind of knowledge.


My earlier research  resulted in a book in Danish and two documentary films on Lubya, three other inspired international research topics, and a series of articles and lectures in different European universities and elsewhere. This research influenced many others, mainly Lubyan refugees, to redefine their own identities accordingly, especially those who are born outside mandate Palestine, in post Nakba era, in exile. Thus, both personal and collective identities are taking different dimensions and interpretations as expressed by Lubyans in the many electronic sites, documentary films and interviews conducted with them in their different dispersed places worldwide.

That is one of many reasons why I became an enthusiastic supporter of the discipline, even though those who opposed it are still vehement in disqualifying the whole approach and have excluded it partially or entirely from the domain of real history. The stories I documented from the displaced Lubyan refugees from eleven Arabic and European countries are, in my opinion, the most credible and authentic source of lively micro stories, which is a fundamental part in understanding not only the lively stories of the interviewees, but the entire macro story of the historiography of Mandate Palestine as well. The result is not only a comprehensive body of quantitative collections of incidents, statistics, geographical locations, as most objective data demands in the traditional social sciences. Rather, it is a reconstruction of essential parts of the wholeness of human life stories and scattered tales that cover not only the years of exile and its tragic ongoing sufferings, but  personal stories that goes back three and four generations before the 1948 Nakba, together with a series of collective memories about the wider area of Lubya[9].


Engagement in constructive dialogues with the interviewees and their descendants were the appropriate methodology to register and document the micro story of this tiny village: history of its land plots, names of its valleys and caves, marriages, burial customs, and the lively stories of its inhabitants.  The challenge for us, researchers or academics, is how to record these live stories from the interviewee: what questions to ask, how to design the interview, what technique to employ, how to verify information, compare, analyze and finally write the research report. These are the main steps that qualitative research interviewing demand. 


Resisting Oblivion

To quote the words of Jan Vansina, a pioneer in research on oral traditions in Africa, who was hailed internationally for initiating work in the field of ethno-history (Vasina 1985 and 2004): “Official history is exclusive: elite, kings, rulers, emperors, literate. Oral history is immediate history” built up on “reminiscences, hearsay and eyewitness accounts” (Vansina 1985: 8).

In the past, history used to be the property of the winners. Now, however, history and culture belong to everyone. It is no more exclusively reflecting the lives of the elites, kings, rulers, emperors, literate, upper class people, the rich or the few, but belongs also to the marginal: the poor, the illiterate and the colonized as well. Gender perspective and women, – who almost constitute half of the population -, have generally also been excluded. A quick glance at the hundreds of oral interviews by Faiha Abd el-Hadi with Palestinian women in the thirties and fourties of the past century confirm the huge loss in the official archives, which rarely touch upon this vital topic[10]. Colonized people generally, and  Palestinians in particular, have been denied the right to self- determination or the right to tell their lifetime history and experiences, due to the systematic force imposed by the colonial powers against the locals/originals for centuries, such as what has happened in Africa, Latin America and Asia also. Thousands of place names have been replaced by names chosen by the occupants. Even the name of the village “Lubya” has been cancelled and replaced by “Lavi”, when a new settlement was built on Lubya’s land after its demolition. A second settlement named Giv’at Avni was built on the eastern side of the village in 1992-93. The Jewish National Fund (JNF), with support from the Women’s Zionist Organization of South Africa, subsequently planted a pine forest on the remains of Lubya and named it “The Forest of the Republic of South Africa”. Meron Benvenisti wrote on this topic in his book Sacred Landscape (Benvenisti 2002). On the 18th of July 1949, “a group made up of nine scholars, well known in their respective fields of cartography, archeology, geography, and history, gathered at the prime minister’s office in Tel Aviv”. Their mission was “to assign Hebrew names to all the places – mountains, valleys, springs, roads, and so on”. Two members of this committee back to 1920 “were appointed advisers to the British mandate government on all matters relating to the assignment of Hebrew names and had fought to persuade the authorities to restore biblical Hebrew place-names to the map of the country in place of the Arabic ones currently in use” (Benvenisti 2002: 11-12). In this context, the biblical name “Lavi” replaces the name “Lubya”, similar to hundred other places that were renamed to match the biblical names..    



Collective memories and landscape as Lieu de memoire: Other theoretical and practical approaches to oral traditions

On the first of May 2015, a group of South African Jews, together with Palestinian Lubyans from Scandinavia, and People from the Zochrot organization, demonstrated in Lubya to protest against the naming of “South African Forest” on the debris of the demolished village of Lubya[11]- a pine forest that is intended to cover the crimes committed against the people of Lubya, and to bury the material culture and the remaining physical witnesses of the past. The year before, in 2014, around 40.000 people from mandate Palestine gathered in Lubya to protest against the injustices done to the Palestinian refugees and their uprooting from their homes and fields since the Nakba in 1948, when 2/3 of Palestinians were expelled in one of the biggest ethnic cleansing operation after World War II[12].  The event proved that after nearly seven decades, the collective memories of this tiny village are still active and resisting the power of oblivion among its own inhabitants and their descendants together with their supporters.     


The accumulation of quantitative data on events cannot and could not replace the meaning of the lively stories of the people concerned. A vital example to illustrate the necessity of  telling and documenting the stories of the oppressed majority through oral testimonies of the victims aiming  at achieving amnesty, reparation and rehabilitation,  is the experience of the South African Truth and  Reconciliation Commission (TRC) after 1994. This outstanding example must be followed for any just and durable solution for the fate of twelve million Palestinians, 5.5 million of whom are refugees, living in 52 camps in and around mandate Palestine.[13] They are denied, until now, the basic international rights of compensation, reparation and return to their homes of origin. Even in an international attempt in 1993 of what is known as “the Peace Process”, those refugees are excluded from exercising their right to vote for their political aspirations and choices[14]. Hearing the stories from the subjects directly, the refugees themselves would be a key to and setting the terms for a durable and sustainable peaceful solution for all the refugees concerned, as Richard Falk, the special envoy of the UN, has documented after interviewing refugees in UNRWAs refugee camps in 2001.[15] What is history, if it does not document and reflect the peoples’ lives and their aspirations?


The theories of “memory” and “identity” developed by the social-scientific French school, mainly those of Maurice Halbwachs and Pierre Nora, constitute the theoretical and conceptual framework for validating the oral approach and the collective memory as well. Of special importance are Halbwachs’s theory on collective memory (Halbwachs 1992), most notably, his main argument that there is not only an individual memory, but also a group memory that exists outside of and beyond the individual. In this respect, one can observe that the five main historical events that elderly Lubyans most vividly remember and therefore most often recounted among Lubyans are: 1) the battle of Hittin in 1187; 2) Lubya as the birthplace of the famous Muslim scholar Abu Bakr al-Lubyani; 3) the death of Damascus Governor Suleiman Pasha in Lubya, in 1743; 4) Napoleon’s march to ‘Akka  in 1799, and the role of Khalil Ibrahim Azzam, an officer from Lubya, in the battle against Napoleon; and 5) “Hajar el-Nousrani”, the stone of Jesus Christ.[16]  Almost all the elderly refugees I interviewed recounted one or two of the above historical events and myths. Recently, Haj Muhammad Samir Karzoun has drawn after fifty years Lubya’s map, with all the houses and their owners. “I woke up one day at night; I could not sleep. I took papers and start drawing. Here is the map.”[17] When I compared the draft of the mental photo with that of the aerial photo taken by British aviation in 4.10.1945, it is almost identical in all details; but livelier with names and houses of all Lubyans who lived there before the city’s demolishment.[18]

A genealogical tree (Issa 2005: 49) of one Lubyan family goes back to al-Hassan, the son of Khalifa Ali in the seventh century and demonstrates the symbolic attachment to the past and the collective memory that cements identity construction of the roots, especially when living in exile. Another genealogical tree is that of Yousef Abu Dhais of Atwat’s family tree (Issa 2005: 49 and 37).


Pierre Nora’s apprehension of history and “landscape” as “les lieux de mémoire”[19]  in Realms of Memory (Nora 1996: xvii), involves an infinite variety of possible meanings and interpretations, as well as including his classification of three types of memory: archival, duty and distance. 

Through my interviews, listening and questioning elderly Lubyans, they named locations of 126 places in Lubya[20] and the original sources of most of these names and their connotative meanings. Also 9 maqams (religious places), and 5 caves (their precise locations on the map of Lubya, still remembered in exile) confirm Lubyans’s apprehension of “landscape as lieu de memoire”, when these monumental memoires have not been obliterated nearly seven decades later.[21]  


Oral research interviews can be analyzed and interpreted properly and in a systematic way through the post-modern theory of hermeneutic and phenomenology[22] approach, because it is so flexible that people of all ages can adapt the techniques of asking and listening to, create, preserve, and learn about cultural heritage, live stories and historical narratives and interpret the multi- layer meaning of an account.

Talking together, conversation, and interpreting the dialogue are central to post – modern thought of Deridda, Foucault, Leotard and others. Global ideology is no more valid in our modern age. To understand human societies, the individual, whether literate or not, is gradually becoming the center and the goal of social development[23] as clarified by the “traveler metaphor” of Kvale, mentioned above.     

Even in an old and stable monarchy such as Denmark’s, a network of different groups related to the National Museum have conducted projects to record the history of modern Denmark through interviews with elderly Danish people. The interviews will be presented in a special museum as part of modern Danish history, so that later generations can know what their parents and grandparents had thought and done in the past. Other initiatives are incorporating the live stories of the recent refugees in the country, recording their histories as well.



Oral Tradition[24] in Antique Ages: Herodotus- Gilgamesh and Mu’allaqaat

Some scholars argue that oral history and tradition are and will remain one of the main sources of our conceptions and understanding of the different social, personal and historical facts and myths at a specific time in a specific period. A few have argued that oral history is as old as history itself, especially before the advent of writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the fourth-third millennium BCE, as a means of communication and later on as a main source for documentation. Such was argued by the early Greek philosophers of the first millennium BCE


The Greek historian of the fifth century BC Herodotus ( 484-425 BCE), who is widely referred to as the Father of History, has been considered the first in ancient times to treat historical subjects and inquiries as a field for investigation, and then to treat the orally collected material systematically and critically as demonstrated in his only book The Histories[25]. Many of his stories were considered controversial by later Greek historians, such as the Athenian comic dramatist Aristophanes (450-388 BCE) and the Athenian historian Thucydides (460-400 BCE) – who was the first to use interviews with soldiers as a new technique in his documentation of the Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta. Both these authors dismissed Herodotus as a story teller, in regard to the accuracy of the events. Nevertheless, his dubious status as the Father of History has continued until the present. The tradition of oral story-telling, especially through myths, fables and epics, such as the epic of Gilgamesh is well rooted in the Greek region of the Mediterranean. As stated by William Harris:

“Most modern scholars believe that even if a single person wrote the [Homeric] epics, his work owed a tremendous debt to a long tradition of unwritten, oral poetry. Stories of a glorious expedition to the East and of its leaders’ fateful journeys home had been circulating in Greece for hundreds of years before The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed. But once we began to consider that the Homeric poems could be more or less than a received ancient text as literature, the way was open for other connections and new lateral interpretations. The most impressive of these was the hypothesis that Homer’s writing was in some indirect but interesting way connected with the writings which go under the name of The Epic of Gilgamesh[26].


 The pre-Islamic oral poetry, named al-Mu’allaqaat[27], had common cultural, traditional and linguistic traces with other neighboring countries as argued by the late Arab -Moroccan philosopher Mohammad Abid al-Jabiri in his four- volume books: Naqd al-‘Aql al-Arabi “Critic of the Arab Mind” (al-Jabiri 1984, 1986, 1990, 2001). In the era of the seventh Abbasid Kalif al-Ma’moon (786-833CE), translation and documentation was a flourishing industry. When the classical scholars of Alexandria, Damascus and Bagdad disagreed about a saying or words in a text, they travelled the long distance to Mecca and Medina to hear from the original inhabitants there how they pronounce a word or a sentence directly. Was the illiterate playing the master of the Arabic language through the power of their remembered verses or sayings at the time of the prophet, and mainly through the tongue of Quraysh tribe? The question posed by Al-Jabiri and others is still relevant even today and still open to researchers on this relation between the oral and the written texts, and how words spoken by the Quraysh tribe was made standard for the classical Arab language, which is mostly conserved in the holy text of the Qur’an.   


The oral Tradition has deep roots in the region, whether in classical Greece or in Greater Syria and Mesopotamia. One can hear until nowadays in the Ma’lula village near Damascus how children learn by heart the old Aramaic speech, which is ancestral to the modern Arabic alphabets . Ma’lula and its two neighbouring villages, Jabadeen and Bakhaa, in modern Syria represent the last vestiges of Western Aramaic, which might have been the language Jesus spoke in Galilee two millennia ago.

Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” stories were circulated for centuries in the region, telling the tales of the glorious expeditions to the east and the heroic acts of its semi-divine heroes returning home.


Al-Bukhari (810-870) a Pioneer in verifying and validating interview tales

The classical examples of poetry and epics mentioned above are only intended as a prelude to present the Islamic scholar Imam al-Bukhari and his methodology of verifying the liability and credibility of the prophet’s words and deeds, collected through oral testimonies in the Hadith.

In the seventh century and later on, a great controversy dominated the interpretation and the authenticity of the collected hadeeth (the oral speeches of the prophet Muhammad) and other prominent personalities, the al-Sahaba, a group of followers/disciples who accompanied him in his prophetic mission. Recollecting all the spoken hadeeths of the prophet from oral resources of his accompanies and the long period that elapsed until the beginning of its registration poses a serious question concerning the preciseness and authenticity of the accounts. It took Islamic/Arabic scholars many years of investigation, analysis, and comparison to come to an agreement of what was believed to be the final version of the exact words of the prophet. Al-Bukhari, the Islamic historian, was one of the most well-known prominent literary figures of the classical period who challenged the authenticity of hundreds of the different versions of hadeeths that were recited by different people after the death of the prophet. In his six volume work, he reduced the numbers of hadeeths to less than 2/3. His analysis demonstrates the highly credible and well-researched methodology that he and the classical researchers had employed in dealing with presenting the most authentic registration of the oral accounts of the prophet and his companions. In many cases, al-Bukhari travelled hundreds of miles on horseback to hear someone who had been recommended by others as a reliable and confident source of remembering the hadeeths of the Prophet. One could say that al-Bukhari was one of the pioneers in establishing the techniques and modes of verifying the oral accounts and histories before writing them down as a credible source of documentation.


Objectivity in historiography?

With the advent and advancement of printing, the role of the written word and the validity of its testimony took almost a religious connotation in the plausibility and authenticity of documents as a reliable source of history. But in recent years, and with the development of colonialist and sub-cultural studies, question marks began to rise concerning the validity of documents as the only source of recovering the historicity of the events. In the end, it is the victorious group who design, write and preserve the archives. Quite a few modern historians, as I mentioned earlier, have begun to question the ‘objectivity’ of the ‘event’, and the influence of the ‘subjective’ when recording or registering the so-called ‘objective’ event. It has become obvious that we are obliged to answer the fundamental question: who made history, and who had the legitimate authority to register events of the past? What about the experiences and the accounts of the ‘illiterate’, the ‘marginal’, the ‘colonised’ and the ‘oppressed’? Can these groups be considered to be an inclusive part of our modern historiography? And what are the best means of registering and preserving their version of histories?

Subjectivity and the personal tendency of ‘those in power’ in presenting their version of historical facts make doubtful the whole concept of “objectivity”. The case of South Africa’s oral testimonies is an example of oral testimony’s validity in history writing.

Only recently, began South Africa’s oral tradition to be established as an independent discipline with its own theories and research methodologies, especially after people realized the inadequacy of traditional historical methods. In November 2003, I participated in a tour to South Africa to study what South Africans have done to the restitution of land and property in the last ten years of the post-apartheid era. Land Commissioner Tozi in Pretoria told us that they will employ the oral history technique in order to identify the plots of land of the black people, who had no written documentation and titles for their expropriated land. Other techniques such as family genealogical trees and marked cemeteries of the individual’s ancestors would be included as proof of the claim.


Lack of proper Palestinian interest in Oral Traditions

The use of oral history is a fundamental issue when we regard our own Palestinian historiography with its huge lack of information concerning our past and modern history. The problem has become paramount, because the strong and dominant discourse of the Zionist movement has prevailed and, to a large extent, succeeded in marginalising the indigenous people’s accounts and narratives. When the Israeli Army entered Beirut in 1982, the first goal of their mission was to confiscate all the documents and archives of the Palestine Research centre[28].

Hundreds if not thousands of books have been written to analyse the Palestinian situation from almost all aspects: historical, social, economic, psychological, and political. Among their authors are some well-known international Palestinian scholars. Nevertheless, apart from a few exceptions, one fundamental and critical aspect is still absent in these writings, namely the recording of history directly from its authentic voices or ‘actors’ (to use theatrical language). The rural majority of the Palestinian people, the fellaheen, the farmers, those who lived all aspects of ‘real’ life in their fields, their houses and their villages,, whether in daily life or in wartime, imposed on them from external forces: , , are absent from historical documentation. They are in the Israeli special term, which has never been used by other colonialist powers called: ‘present absentees’. Not only male, but also female voices are absent, neglected and marginalized in many ways. The narratives of the neglected, the marginalized, the alienated, are almost totally absent from our historiography. Until now, we have only the official Palestinian documentation, apart from the scattered interviews and books based on oral testimonies written recently, and the official Israeli version of the events. But the question still remains: why didn’t the Palestinians accomplish the main task of collecting the oral stories of the thousands who have been expelled from their homes, lands and farms?


Is it because of illiteracy among the rural population in Palestine, among many other reasons? I fundamentally disagree. But let us suppose that this is correct, and then we should ask: where were our intellectuals and revolutionaries? How come those Chinese and Vietnamese intellectuals wrote hundreds of books about the participation of Chinese and Vietnamese peasants in their revolutions, and Palestinian intellectuals did not?

A prior and vital question is: do we really want to know our modern history or not? And second, do we believe in new definitions of culture and history, taking care of the majority of people voices, far from the elite’s concepts and their perspective and version of history?

The following example will concretely illustrate a key point of what I mean: When Sharif Kana’na, Professor of anthropology at Birzeit University first presented his proposal to his colleagues at the university to start a project to record the histories of the destroyed villages, the reaction was cynical and mocking: ‘Looking for the dead debris of the past’? Nevertheless, Kana’na insisted on sending his students to the remains of the villages in Palestine, to meet the survivors, and to record their narratives. The results are impressive, and Kana’na’s recordings comprise twenty-seven demolished villages, the history of which is now fully documented. Other colleagues from the BirZeit University have followed in his steps, among whom is Saleh abd al-Jawad, who felt the necessity of undertaking this huge responsibility to document the villages’ historiography after the 1948 Nakba.[29]


Another documentarist to be remembered is the Palestinian Sahira Dirbas, who alone, without any institutional support, wrote three books about demolished villages in the Haifa district (Salama, Tira and Birwi), based mainly on oral interviews. She is still doing research on her own initiative; especially her impressive documentary films on Palestinian women.[30]

 The question remains: are these private initiatives enough to fulfil the minimum level of rewriting modern experiences and histories, based on personal experiences? After sixty nine years of uprooting and exile in one of the biggest ethnic cleansing operations in modern times, we only have around 130 books with scattered documentary about the Nakba and the demolished villages. To demonstrate the lack of basic information on this recent history, one can see a fundamental gap in our documentation:  for the past sixty five years our academics adopted the number 418 for the villages destroyed in or after 1948. Then Salman Abu Sitta (1998) came up with a well-documented map showing 531 localities, including all the localities and helmets in Negev desert. But in the year 2015, two researchers from the Zochrot office came with the number of 601 demolished villages that were documented.[31] Many thanks as well to the personal engagement of the late Gassan Shihabi, who published a series of books about demolished villages at his own publishing house: Dar al-Shajara- in al-Yarmouk Camp, Damascus.[32] Shihabi was shot dead in the tragic turmoil in Yarmouk refugee camp near Damascus while trying to help people taking their portion of food and medicine,

Given the huge loss of documents due to the sudden uprooting of the population from their houses and lands, there is only one way to fill the gap: to record the lives of the pre-1948 generation through oral history methods as quickly as possible. According to the last estimate of a Palestinian demographer: Palestinians aged over 68 is between 3.3 and 3.9% of the whole population. This would make the pool around 210.000 (counting only those living in Palestine and the Arab host countries, as Rosemary Sayigh wrote in the editorial to Al-Janna magazine,[33] which concentrated on the issue of Palestinian oral history).


The case of reminiscences from Lubya[34] 

“Reminiscences are perhaps the most typical product of human memory….Reminiscences are bit of life history. Everyone holds such reminiscences. They are essential to a notion of personality and identity. They are the image of oneself one cares to transmit to others” (Vansina1985:   8).

More than thirty old men and women from Lubya whom I have interviewed in the last twenty years have passed away. Without their reminiscences, part of the historiography on modern Palestine modern would be lost. However, a lot has perished. One of the main resources of my research Abu Majid, Fayiz el Fawaz, who was not tired of recounting stories that fill up to twelve hours of tape recording, wrote the following piece of passionate poetry, addressing those who were able to visit Lubya and expressing his longing to see Lubya_


The poem in Arabic:

Ya Za’ir In Ruhit la-bladak ziyara                                

Boos trabha boos lihjara

Itha mayyalt ‘a lubya al ‘thbi                                        

byihiznak ya za’ir manthar atharha

Shammil ‘ala ilhara il-shmaliyyi                                    

wi zoor il-balad hara ba’id hara

Lamma jarrabat il-kuwwat il-isra’iliyyi   

‘ala lubya tshin ghara

Dabbabat wa tayyarat wa madfa’iyyi     

wa rashashat tzikh bi ghazara

Kan il ‘adad wahad lamiyyi                                          

wa darat ilma’raka min dar la dara

Wa bkina bihlokhim shoki kawiyyi                               

kat’een il-tareek imshaddidden il-hisara

Ila in ja’at ilkuwwat ilkawokjiyyi                                 

sallamatna bi’amir madroos wa sadir karara….


The poem in English (my translation)


Kiss its soul kiss the stones

If you pass by the sweet Lubya                                    

You will be melancholic at its sad ruins

Go to the northern suburb                                             

And visit the village suburb by suburb

When the Israeli forces tried                                         

To invade Lubya

Tanks and airplanes and mortars                                   

And machine guns shooting rapidly

The numbers was one to one hundred    

The battle was from door to door

We stuck in their throats a pick                                    

Disrupting their roads and strengthening the besiege

Until Qawuqji[35] forces came                                         

And delivered the land by orders from above[36].


Of course there are many theoretical and methodological problems that need to be studied by those who want to work on oral interviews. I faced a series of problems when I began to register the accounts from Lubyan refugees. A few examples of these problems are listed and discussed below.


1.      Methods of qualitative interviews without preparing official questionnaires, but using semi-structured questions instead

2.      Preparation of relevant questions and structuring the topics

3.      Choice of place and time for the interviews without interventions and interruptions mostly from other family members)

4.      Verification and cross-questioning (especially when there are two versions for the same event, which is normal to have in these private accounts from different angles of views). In such case, the different accounts of the same event should be left to the researcher to verify and compare the information to get the wholeness of the scene).

5.      Use of written documented material, whether British, Israeli or other documentation is helpful when available: examples of the attacks to invade and capture Lubya in 1948 was described in details by the Hagana officers with detailed maps, manoeuvres, losses and employed tactics. I also interviewed two Israeli officers who participated in the battle against Lubya, which gives me more chances to compare and verify the credibility of the stories.[37]


 The critical approach to the collected tales should not exclude “scandalous” stories, as Abu Majid named them. For example, a few wealthy Lubyans who were not willing to pay back the debt to a shopkeeper in the village, Muhammad Thyab (from Burj al-Shimali refugee camp in Lebanon, who holds the books of the debt until 1998); the story of the killing of a brave revolutionary, Saleh Taha, by another Lubyan who belonged to a strong tribe in the village, thus not held responsible for his act and escaped justice. A series of other incidents such as “honour killing” was also suppressed, or not spoken about openly in the community. This is the job of the researcher’s critical evaluation to analyse and report after hearing all the views of the different people interviewed.     


When recounting one must consider the psychological impact of remembering the past memories, especially when marked by trauma and tragic events, lapse of time of more than half a century between the event and its newly recorded oral accounts, fear from persecution as a hindrance to vividly remembering the past (one Lubyan: Abu Sameh al-Samadi, was called by the police of a country after giving interview on the spot of what happened in 1948 and received a warning not to come back again, as he told me[38]). All these technical obstacles are easy to master if one takes into consideration all the above mentioned points from the beginning and before starting the research interviews. 


Without the memory and the voices of the elderly Lubyans and their will to resist oblivion and keep remembering their past, there will be a huge loss, both for human history in general, and for personal loss of identities of approx. 50.000 Lubyans, dispersed to the four corners of the world and awaiting for justice to take place by admitting a return to their homeland, reparation and compensation. 


I would like to end up this article by two quotations: one by Euripides (484-407/406) BCE: “There is no greater sorrow on earth than the loss of one’s native land”, and the other by Milan Kundera, juxtaposing memory and forgetfulness: “The struggle of people against power is the struggle of memory against forgetting” (Kundera 1980: 5). Oral History is a continued battle field for millions who have been marginalized, deprived of power, denied the right to recount history of their lives. Imagine a history without the eyewitnesses and reminiscences of the victims of the massacres in: Armenia (1915-1923), Bosnia (Srebrenica, 1995), Algier (war of independence 1951-1962), the Holocaust (1938-1945), South Africa (1818-1994), Kurdistan (Halabja 1988), Myanmar’s Rohingya, where around 800, 000 were displaced from their houses in few months in (2017) – almost identical to the same numbers of Palestinians uprooted from their homes seventy years earlier in 1948- and finally Palestine (1947-1948), where up to 70 documented massacres took place,[39] such as Dier Yassin, Tantura, Sufsaf, Lod, Lubya, Ailaboon, Dawaymi; to mention only a few examples.




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_________________ 2006. The Political Role of Palestinian Women in the 1940’s. Al-Bireh, Palestine: The Palestinian Women’s Research & Documentation Center / UNESCO.

_______________ 2007. “If I Were Given thee Choice…”. Palestinian Women’s Stories of Daily Life during the Years 2000- 2003 of the Second Intifada. Ramallah: Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counseling.

________________ 2009. The Political Role of Palestinian Women in 1950-1965. Al-Bireh, Palestine: The Palestinian Women’s Research & Documentation Center / UNESCO.

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____________. 2005. Lubya var en landsby i Palæstina. Erindringer. Historie. Kultur. Identitet. Copenhagen: Tiderne Skifter.

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Nora, Pierre 1996. Realms of Memory.  Vol 1: The Construction of the French Past: Conflicts and Divisions. (Transl. by Arthur Goldhammaer  and ed. by Lawrence D. Kritzman). European Perspectives: A Series in Social Thought and Cultural Criticism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Suarez, Thomas. 2016. State of Terror. How Terror Created Modern Israel. Bloxham, U.K.: Skyscraper Publications.

____________ 2017. “The Cult of the Zionists. An historical Enigma”.


Vansina, Jan. 1985. Oral Tradition as History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ___________ 2004. Antecedents to Modern Rwanda, The Nyiginya Kingdom. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Vico, Giambattista. 1988. The New Science of Giambattista Vico. Revised Translation of the Third Edition (1744). Ed. and Trans. Thomas Goddard Bergin and Max Harold Fisch. 1948. Itacha New York: Cornell University Press.





[1] Lubya is a village in Galilee roughly 10.5 km south west of Tiberias. The Danish Research Council for the Humanities and the Danish Institute in Damascus have sponsored the research project “Lubya: A Palestinian Village in the Middle East”, 1995- 1996 &1999. Part of the research was published in: Lubya var en landsby i Palæstina: Erindringer-Historie- Kultur-Identitet. Københavnm Tiderne Skifter, 2005.
[2] 601 villages were identified by two researchers from Zochrot. This surpasses the 531 of Salman Abu Sitta’s map and the 418 villages documented by Walid Khalidi in : All that Remains The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992.
[3] Zochrot (“remembering” in Hebrew) is an NGO working since 2002 to promote acknowledgement and accountability for the ongoing injustices of the Nakba, the Palestinian catastrophe of 1948 and the reconceptualization of the Return as the imperative redress of the Nakba and a chance for a better life for all the country’s inhabitants.(
[4] Yousef al Youssef (1938-2013), an author and critic, originally from Lubya, who passed away three years ago in Lebanon after he had left his home in the Yarmouk Camp in Damascus.. 
[5] Steiner Kvale’s definition of qualitative research interview:  Interview is ”inter view”: ”an exchange of views between two persons speaking together on a theme of common interest”. The interviewer can be characterized as a two metaphor Interviewer defined as ” a mine Worker” or as ” a traveler metaphor” (Kvale 1994:2).
[6] The seven main phases mentioned by Kvale (ibid, p.54) are theme, design, interview, transcription, analysis, verification and report.
[7] The first was a sailing journey with Joseph Conrad’s fiction, my Ph.D thesis: Mahmoud Issa“Involvement and Detachment in Joseph Conrad’s Fiction”, Copenhagen, Regnbue Tryk,published, 1995.
[8] Different kinds of interviews: personal-news-literature: drama, novel, novella-religious-journalistic-academic: oral exams-in court-therapy dialogue- qualitative research interview. (Kvale, ibid, p.12). Each of the above mentioned has its own methods and techniques.
[9] Lubya is also suggested by Thomas Thompson  to be a window for “Investigating Palestine’s Subaltern Heritage” (a paper presented to the committee of PaHH – The Palestine History and Heritage project, 2017): “In structuring this theoretical and methodological framework, we wish to describe an inclusive and critical history of the landscape of eastern Lower Galilee as a representative model for the small-region oriented Palestine History and Heritage project. Lubya/ Lavi (Pal. Coord.: 1905.2424) consists today of the remains of a Palestinian village, destroyed in 1948. Some three thousand Palestinians were expelled. This process of depopulation, destruction and dispossession has not succeeded, however, in wiping out the memory of this village and its surroundings. Today, it provides us with a microcosm for the some 600 other demolished villages from mandate Palestine, which have left some 5.5 million refugees today”. And further by Thompson: “The village functions as a looking glass, through which we might glimpse the historical associations which once existed in Palestine from a subaltern perspective. As we understand it, this village, but one of many within the greater landscape of the Galilee, emerges as a palimpsest in which a mosaic of prehistoric, ancient and more recent Palestinian remains visibly mixes with contemporary and twentieth century Israeli architecture”. To see more on Pahh project see:
[10] Faiha Abdul Hadi’s four volume books on Palestinian women’s historiography, depending mainly on oral interviews with women, is a land mark in documenting the historiography of Palestinian women since the 1930’s (Hadi 2006-2009). 
[11] Link to CNN report on this event can be seen at:
[12] The committee of the displaced Palestinians in Israel is demonstrating every year in one of the demolished villages in 1948 to keep the memory of the Nakba alive and unforgettable.
[13] According to Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Ramallah, and Palestine 2013. Two thirds of the Palestinians are living outside mandate Palestine. In Europe alone there are around a quarter million Palestinians.
[14] Diaspora Palestinians had no right to vote during the two elections that took place in Palestine after the Palestinian Authorities took responsibility of the West Bank and Gaza according to 1993 Oslo Accords.
[15] Richard Anderson Falk is Professor Emeritus of International Law at Princeton University and Visiting Distinguished Professor in Global and International Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 2001, he served on a three person Human Rights Inquiry Commission for the Palestine Territories that was appointed by the United Nations

[16]Lubyans believe that a big stone in Lubya was a resting place for Jesus when he was travelling from Nazareth to Tiberias. Abu Mahir Hajjo, a Lubyan  living in Deir Hanna, accompanied with other elderly Lubyans showed  me this famous stone when I visited the area,  
[17] Interview with Karzoun in Yarmook refugee camp, Damascus, 1998.
[18] See a photo of the map in Lubya var en landsby i Palæstina (Issa 2005. p 30).
[19] A “Lieu de mémoire” “ is any significant entity, whether material or non-material in nature, which by dint of human will or work of time has become a symbolic element of memorial heritage of any community” as defined by Nora in the following link:

A lieu de mémoire (site of memory) is a concept popularized by the French historian Pierre Nora in his three-volume collection Les Lieux de Mémoire (published in part in English translation as Realms of Memory).
[20] The whole areal of Lubya is 39,629 dunams  as mentioned in  All that Remains. The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948 (Al-Khalidi 1992: 526).
[21] To see the names see , pp. 188-190
[22] founded by Husserl, and further developed by Heidegger and Sartre
[23] In this regard, it is interesting to read Giambattista Vico’s vision of the science of the common  nature of nations, and how it moved in three stages from: Gods, Heroes, Human beings . The New Science  (Vico 1988).
[24] “Oral tradition is a narrative describing or purporting to describe eras before the time of the person who relates it”: (J.C.Miller1980: 2; cited by Vansina 1985: 209). Oral Traditions are no longer contemporary, “they have passed from mouth to mouth, for a period beyond the lifetime of the informants”, while the sources of oral history such as reminiscences, hearsy, or eyewitness accounts about events and situations “are contemporary, that is, which occurred during the lifetime of the informant” (Vansina 1985:12).
[25] George Rawlinson 1996. To know more about Herodotus’ predecessors and their influence see: Herodotus, Carolyn Dewald and John Marincola, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006. 
[26] Fragments of Gilgamesh in Babylonian script can be dated from around 2000 BCE.  The entire tale, however, is mainly known from the twelve cuneiform tablets that were found in the library of Assurbanipal (668 – 626 BCE).
[27] The Mu‘allaqāt (Arabic: المعلقات, [al-mu’allaqaːt]) is a group of seven Arabic poems that are considered the best work of the pre-Islamic era. The name means: “The Suspended Odes” or “The Hanging Poems”- The traditional explanation being that these poems were hung on the walls of or in the Ka’ba at Mecca, after being recited orally and chosen to be written and hanged until the following year of poetry festival. It has also been called The Mu‘allaqāt because it is like precious gems that hang in the mind and is watched in silence. (cf. Kirsten Eksell 2006:158). 
[28] Bo Dahl Hermansen, is writing a detailed article on Lubya in this volume. I will therefore not go into details and mention the many historical narratives that confirm the collective remembrance among nowadays Lubyans- especially that of the battle of Salah El Deen El Ayoubi (1137-1197) on Lubya’s land on the 4th of July 1187, and the following resounding defeat of the crusaders.      
[29] More can be seen on demolished villages on the website: 
[30] An article in Arabic from the al-akbar newspaper concerning Sahira Dirbas’s achievements can be seen at the site (
[32] Old official Documents about refugees of 1948 are kept in unsafe conditions in Gaza and Amman in UNRWA archives. A recent contract in 2013 was signed between the Danish foreign ministry and UNRWA to digitalize these valuable documents (more than one million) and keep them in safe place at the Danish Royal Library in Copenhagen.
[33] Al-Janna, Arab resource Centre for popular Arts, Beirut, Lebanon, 2002
[34] Links. (41 articles, 156 pictures, 2 videos, link to Wikipedia, Facebook,  maps and names of  Lubyans living worldwide could be read and seen on the above mentioned link). Also on my homepage two documentary films: Lubya:” Ancestor’s land”, 1995 & “A village under forest” 2013,  photos and manuscript of Lubya’s historiography can be seen both in  Arabic and English, together with many other relevant articles on Lubya’s historiography.
[35] Fawzi al-Qawuqgi (1890-1977) was the field commander for the Arab Liberation Army (ALA) or what being named in Arabic: the Salvation Army; appointed by the Arab League to lead voluntary forces from different Arab countries to help Palestinians. On the 18th of July 1948, Lubya fell to the Hagana forces after  ALA left Lubya without fight
[36] Unfortunately Abu Majid was one, among hundreds others, who passed away without any possibility neither to see the ruins of his home, nor to receive the minimum gesture of justice that he awaited for more than six decades in his refugee home in Yarmouk camp in Syria.
[37] See link to manus.
[38] Interviewed in the Yarmouk refugee camp in Damascus, Nov. 1989.
[39] Name of massacres and dates in the following link: To know more about other massacres since the Balfour declaration in 1917; why and how they took place, follow the link Thomas Suarez article: “The Cult of the Zionists- An historical Enigma”,; and see also Suares’ well researched declassified documented book, State of Terror, Skyscraper Publications, U.K., 2016.


documents, films, cultural articles, books on Lubya: history, identity and culture of Lubya village in Galilee, Palestine.